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Approaches to Personality

Powerful Essays
There are many ways to judge and define the self with numerous theories surrounding the topic. Personality is inseparable part of the self. Recent research suggests that even your pet can predict your personality (Gosling and Sandy 2011). This shows how much personality theories evolved and changed with time. Historical research into personality theories reveals two distinct, yet related, approaches to the self in psychology. Biologically oriented approach, that emphasises nature and inheritability of personality (Eysenck 1956), and Psychodynamic oriented approach, which concentrates around the idea that environment influences our personality (Schuett and Dall 2013).
Biological psychology or as referred to by (Stevens 1996) ‘’the embodied self ‘’is the science that attempts to explain human behaviour in terms of biological foundations (Wickens, 2005). It looks at chemical activity in the brain e.g., how neurotransmitters act to enable messages to be transmitted. Biopsychology also examines how characteristics are inherited via genes during the process of evolution. Charles Darwin first proposed the idea that both genes and evolution contribute towards many of our qualities including personality (Darwin 1859). Two main assumptions of biological approach are: mental events cause biological consequences, and biological events cause mental consequences (Wickens, 2005). Bio psychologists believe that the mental and biological processes are linked to each other and cannot be separated. This approach to self uses quantitative methods of collecting data. One of the key researchers in field of biological psychology was Donald Hebb. After he published his book in 1949 The Organisation of Behaviour biopsychology developed into major scient...

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