This theory in contrast with the other previous mainstream theories broadens the aspect of hegemony. Historical bloc refers the way in which a relationship is established over the contending social forces; simply saying it as the political alliance (Budd, 2013). A truly hegemonic society will establish when the state would protect the wo... ... middle of paper ... ... forces, forms of state and the world orders. The theory provides a significant and decisive framework that facilitates the market analyst to presume that inter-state co-operation is plausible without even a single hegemony. It exposes that the cultural, political and economic struggles among social forces and state clarify the emergence of international regimes and global civil society.
Since a state is basically a group of people the ruler is also a person, however because they are the decision maker of the state they function as a rational actor promoting the interest of the state. Niccolo Machiavelli had this in mind when he argued that a ruler must be prepared to undertake any action that lead to the preservation of the state. This usually means the ruler tries to stay in power so that they can ensure the sovereignty of the state. While there is an international system above the state the most that system can do is to influence the state to act towards its own best interest within that system of other nations and organizations. The state does not act for the system above it, it acts for itself.
The Two-Level Game According to Hagan (1995), the politics of international relations can be understood as a two-level game. At the national level, local groups pursue their interest by compelling the government to adopt favorable policies, whereas officials seek power by establishing alliances among these groups. At the international level, the national government endeavors to satisfy domestic requirements at the same time it attempts to lessen the adve... ... middle of paper ... ...onal security and economic prosperity, they are also keen at protecting their political power. The meaning of national interest can vary from one state to another. Nevertheless, national interest is inevitably at the core of domestic and international policies.
Constructivism Alexander Wendt in his work entitled Social Theory of International Politics (1999) explain the basic propositions of constructivism, arguing that “structures of human association are determined primarily by shared ideas rather than material forces; thus, identities and interests of purposive actors are constructed by these shared ideas rather than given by nature” (Palan, 2000, p. 576). As such, these shared ideas construct identities and interests. In this regard, Wendt supports Thucydides who explains how language and convention form identities and enable power to be translated into influence (Lebow 2001, 547). As a result, this means that the cultures of anarchy depends on “how [actors] construe their identity in relation to others” (Zehfuss, 2001, p.318). This also means that the structure of the international system is a social phenomenon, not merely a material phenomenon because (Hinnebusch, 2003), as stated above, “the character of international life is determined by the beliefs and expectations” that are constructed mostly by social structure “rather than material structures," (Wendt, 1999).
He also argued that morality is a preference on the part of the people. He departs from non-realist theorists when he argues that morality has no place in measuring or comparing states with one another: “Here no other criteria, sadder, more limited, more practical, must be allowed to prevail.” Realists’ tenets, fundamentally, are that states should act in their self-interest and that states in the world have to focus on their survival. Realists hold that we live in an anarchic system, and as such... ... middle of paper ... ...heories outlined in this paper. One of the defining principles of realism is that the state is paramount to anything else, including morality. Realists argue that deviation from the state interests in an anarchic system creates vulnerability.
Civil Society has become one the most important features of the Morden State, whether operate independently or cooperated by the state. The primary role for the civil society is to limit the control of power by the state but more often now more civil society organisations have been co-opted into the state. This move has been criticized as it is view as that the state only do it to advance its own interest. Starting off with the idea of civil as state society, Marx does not go with the idea that it is the state that creates and sustains civil society. Below some of Marx criticism of this idea by different scholars in discussed.
On the other hand, neoliberalism contributed to clarification of the complexity constituted by different actors and problems in the issue, while demonstrating the rationality of states, as well as the birth of the institution forming international norms. Therefore, the author believed the two perspectives are not contradictory, but complementary. Analysis Framework Neorealism-Structural Realism What neorealism believes is fear and distrust originated from the anarchy of international system, resulting in the pursuit of power for survival. As stated by Mearsheimer (2010), power is the currency of international politics. The statement addressed a simple but important question: “why do states want power?” While “human nature” is always claimed by the classical realism, the neorealists, or the structural realists such as Mearsheimer specified the structure or architecture of the international system which forces states to pursue power.
In international relationships however sovereignty does not supply security therefore a state must vie with its neighboring states to accomplish it. This can lead to a power struggle to ensure that state’s people can live in security.  A second key point of realism is survival. Survival to realists is rather simple; the state with the most power stands a better likelihood of survival. Naturally it is believed that survival is the definitive objective of realism.
Article Summary American (and other Western) democratic political theory: Legitimizes decisions made through elective and legislative processes. Places a high value on participation and representation. Fears the “king” or, in modern terms, authoritarianism. Rejects transfer of decisions (often called “discretion” in public administration literature) to administrators. Basic Issue, Part 1 Are the servants of the public to decide their own course, or is their course, or is their course of action to be decided by a body outside themselves?
This school of thought focuses on ways in which power affects the international arena by assessing how states influence each other as the most important actors in world politics. Realpolitik pays attention to political power matters such as military preparedness and industrial capacities, ignoring issues of morality, ideology and other social aspects as reasons for actions of states. In this way, realism sets up a strong framework for understanding short-term, interstate relationships, yet leaves the comprehension of deeper, long-term issues weak in the background. Power politics maintains that human nature is generally selfish. This belief comes from their understanding of the trends in international relations.