The social determinants that affect health are frequently liable for health inequalities which are the partial and unnecessary changes in health position seen in and among nations. The social determinants that will be discussed here are housing, employment, education and income. Housing is the first factor of the social determinants affecting health. The relationship between housing conditions and physical and mental ill health has been analytically recognised through epidemiological studies. The association is, nonetheless, difficult encompassing of the contact of poverty, dissimilarity, entrance to housing and housing as an inner and exterior living situation.
Social determinants of health have attracted the attention of governments, policy makers and international health organisations over the last three decades (Hankivsky & Christoffersen 2008). This is because social conditions which people are born in, live and work play an important role in their health outcomes (WHO 2015). According to Kibesh (1200) social determinants drive health disparities, disrupts the human developmental process and undermine the quality of life and opportunities for people and families (ref). Thus, several theories have been developed over the years to provide in-depth understanding of the social determinants of health and to reduce health inequalities (Hankivsky & Christoffersen, 2008). However, there is still significant
To begin with, society and social factors have increasingly been investigated as they have been thought of as crucial components to understand health. This tendency was derived by the inefficiency of the traditional model of health, the biomedical model, in many situations to manage some diseases such as communicable diseases (Browne, Health and Illness, 2005). Disease was predominantly attributed to proximal biological factors identified by doctors according to the classical model accepted in the nineteenth century. Therefore, this model seems to be inadequate to explain the differences in health outcomes between social strata. Despite the fact that health currently could be defined differently depending upon factors such as sex and age, it is generally believed now that it combines physical, mental and social well being of individuals (Blaxter, 2001).
The article clearly identifies the variables as well as the relationship between the variables such as relationship between PICU admissions and survival rates of patients. The article’s significance in nursing is imbedded in the drive to “decrease the mortality rate associated with childhood cancer and to improve the quality of life for those who survive their illness”. Dr. Hendrickson relies very heavily on current and primary sources, such as the hospital tumor registry as well as resource information management database. She also addresses relevant variables such as type of cancer, survival rate, length of hospital stay, and associates costs. Significant gaps in information lie in the 26.8% of patients who were cared for by community-based physicians rather than university based physicians.
Health literacy is “the degree to which an individual has the capacity to obtain, communicate, process, and understand basic health information and services to make appropriate health decisions” (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). Low health literacy is a major problem in the US and it can have a negative impact on patient health and outcomes. Another major problem is heart failure. When low health literacy is combined with a chronic condition, like heart failure, research has shown disastrous consequences, such as poor quality of health and increased mortality. According to data heart failure and low health literacy are costly, common problems among populations 65 and older.
Health Disparities and Racism is an ongoing problem that is reflected among society. Health is when an individual is physically, mentally and social well being is complete. However health disparities seems to be a social injustice within various ethnicities. Health disparities range from age, race, income, education and many other things. Even though we realize health disparities are more noticeable depending on the region of country where they live in.
Given the gross inequalities in health and health outcomes and the social determinants of health (SDOH), why have policy makers not done more to address the income inequality problems to help reduce the effects? An extensive amount of literature has been published about the relationship between income inequality, the social determinants of health and poor health outcomes. Research has also been done to measure income inequality among minority groups and the resulting health outcomes impacted by the social determinants of health. Through consulting these research, it can be taken that, income inequality among minority groups and resulting health outcomes are affected by social determinants of health and specifically race and space. However current
Throughout the course of the semester we have focused on many different topics in our Anchor and Discourse class. The connection that I have found between both classes is the relation between race and health disparities. Not only does race have an impact of health in the U.S. but also socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, age, and disability. Access and costs related to health care can also have a great effect on an individual’s ability to receive necessary treatment. In Discourse we read Peggy McIntosh’s essay, White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack.
The hospital and physician practices in prior decades are not the same today and it’s vital to uphold standards for patient safety, care, and medical costs. As (Medicaid.gov, 2015) states, by contracting with various MCO’s to deliver Medicaid program health care services to their beneficiaries, states can reduce Medicaid program costs and better manage utilization of health services. Most states are implementing and coordinating more traditional services for managed care. Medicaid will to rise and aiding people who live in poverty, but the amount of challenges that lie ahead are problematic. For instance, the types of services including long-term care, mental illness, and eligibility standards are not permissible for everyone.
There are numerous factors affecting this adverse situation. In this document it is going to be discussed thoroughly and widely with some logical solutions which should be ideal to introduce immediately. As concerned above this low birth weight (LBW) issue has caused to many health impairments in latter part of the life. This impaired fetal feeding and the resulting intrauterine growth restriction has being caused for infant mortality by 8-17 % of pregnancies in the developed and developing countries (UNICEF, 2003). Though the child was low in weight he/she may bear many health problems inside the body which are shown at the elderly period.