Apophatical Metaphysics of a Subject

analytical Essay
3224 words
3224 words

Apophatical Metaphysics of a Subject

ABSTRACT: In this paper, the inevitability of the metaphysics of a subject for the philosophical understanding of a person’s being in the world is established, and the apophatic character of this type of metaphysics is discussed. Analysis of the categories of being and non-being which allow the interpretation of a subject as transcendent and as transcendental being that is characterized by uniformity, spontaneity and irreversibility is also mentioned. The suggested interpretation of a subject discloses both the rational sense of the classical points of view on the absolute, unconditional, timeless and spaceless character of the subject of knowledge, and the compatibility of the notions of the absolute character of a subject and the ontological condition of a human being in society and culture. The main idea of the suggested conception of a subject is the fact that the subject’s being cannot be "housed" into the world, nor can it be characterized as impossible existence for the world. The world can be understood only from the point of view of being impossible (symbolic) existence. The discussion of the problem of identification of a subject shows that the presumption of a subject as one of the existing structures of the world leads to paradoxes and contradictions in the interpretation of the processes taking place in the world. To understand the process of education, it is necessary to bear in mind that it is not only cognitive, but also moral: education is the process of the formation of a subject of knowledge through identification with transcendental symbolic existence, which fact demands making efforts to be on the part of the thinking person.

I. Introduction

Some schools of modern philosophy buried the notion of a subject in oblivion. Criticism of the classical reason that began in the second half of the XIX century has come to an end in postmodemism of the XX century with the declaration of the principles of pluralism, relativism, contextuality and decentration. These principles are incompatible with the classical view on a subject, an object, truth and objectivity of cognition. The characteristic feature of the classical conceptions criticism of the 1-conceptions was the fact that it was aimed at opposing the consequences of the classical conceptions. These consequences include theories of the ideological forms of consciousness, theory of social progress, scientism, understanding of truth as a function of power, violence, etc. We must not understand this criticism of consequences as sufficient ground to reject the notion of subject.

In this essay, the author

  • Explains the inevitability of metaphysics of a subject for the philosophical understanding of the person's being in the world, and the apophatic character of this type.
  • Explains that scientific understanding of the world is based on the interpretation of being as an entity of existing objects and phenomena.
  • Explains that the ideas expressed above have great importance for the understanding of the character of a man's being. a transcendental subject corresponds to the ideal of truth and objectivity of scientific cognition.
  • Explains that to be subject is a possibility, any person faces. one can live, but at the same time he cannot be.
  • Explains that being is a transcendent being of man towards the world. it is uniform, single, and indivisible.
  • Explains that the interpretation of a man's being above implies the relation to non-being, because as an unknowledgeable, immoral individual, or wrongdoer, he can be and not be.
  • Argues that the notion of subject remains one of the fundamental metaphysical notions.
  • Analyzes the distinction between being and non-being based on the works of m.heidegger, j.-p.sartre, and russian philosophers.
  • Explains that non-being cannot be expressed until it is intruded in it. the symbol of a subject's birth fixes the subjective being in the world.
  • Explains that human consciousness is not a vessel that can be filled with any information. the teacher must change the common picture of the world the student possesses.
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