These hormones are responsible for regulating the immune system. After a virus is destroyed, regulatory t cells reduce the activity levels of B lymphocytes and other T cells by releasing their own set of lymphokines, called suppressor factors. The immune system is a formidable system, consisting of multiple intricate parts. These parts
Certain conditions in the body can also promote the growth of cancer cells. One of these is a deficiency of natural killer (NK) cells, which are able to kill cancer cells by creating a pore in the cell membrane with perforin and releasing granzymes into the cell. Low levels of perforin allow for tumor growth 1. Chronic inflammation can also ... ... middle of paper ... ...gens are exogenous (outside the cell) and will be presented to helper T cells to initiate an immune response. This can trigger cytotoxic T cells to kill cancer cells with the same antigen – often HPV viral proteins in cervical cancer.
Monocytes are the precursors for macrophages; these monocytes migrate and differentiate into tissue macrophages once they encounter an infection. Macrophages are distributed around the w... ... middle of paper ... ...al, anti-parasitic as well as anti-tumor activities. Macrophages play an important role in the defence against tumours. This defence is achieved by the rapid response, the production and secretion of various cytokines that target the activation of dendretic cells (DC) and natural killer cells (NK). INF-y is the main cytokine that drive NK to stop the progression of tumour, and NK cells to activate the T cells to respond to the danger (Lamagna et al.
• Use of adjuvant therapy for example having p-glycoprotein inhibitors. • Use of growth factors and protein kinase C inhibitors. • Gene knockout using antisense molecules. This could be effective in blocking drug resistance. Putting Cancer Drug Resistance to good use: • Unwanted toxicity on the bone marrow is one of the major problems of chemotherapy.
The innate includes barriers like the skin and antibacterial enzymes within tears. The adaptive is based on specialized white blood cells which are lymphocytes and they respond to invasions by micro-organisms. Antibodies are chemicals produced by B cells, they circulate in the blood that attacks disease and causes organisms, T cells attack organisms head on, and these cells can memorize earlier infections and therefore can act fast to avoid further attacks. The defence of the immune system helps to provide protection against infectious disease as well as some malfunctions of the internal body. If the infectious organism splits the skin or maybe one that is not killed off by chemicals, for example the enzymes found in tears or the saliva, the immune and inflammatory response come into action.
There are different types of T cells, cytotoxic, helper, regulatory, and natural killer T cells. Normally the B cells produce antibodies that protect the body from invaders. The antibodies recognize a protein on a foreign target and bind to them, either marking an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or it can neutralize the target directly. Usually antibodies are quite good at differentiating between cells that are foreign or self. Lupus causes the body to produce antibodies that attack the self or autoantibodies.
There are two types of adaptive system reponses: humoral and cell meditated. In the humoral immune response proteins, which can stick and destroy antigens appear in the blood and other body fluids. Humoral immune responses resist invaders that act outside of cells such as bacteria or toxins. During cell meditated immune responses cells that can destroy other cells become active. Their destructive activity is limited to cells that are either infected with or producing a specific antigen.
To understand better what the infection does to the body we must look at the role of lymphocytes in the body briefly and how they do their work. B-lymphocytes are the ones that are affected directly upon when the body is subjected to this type of infection. Their role in the body is vital for immunity. They are grouped into five subclasses, depending upon some of the polypeptides in their makeup. The basic role of B-lymphocytes is to secrete antibodies that they have made due to them coming into contact with an antigen.
Through a remarkable maturation process sometimes referred to as thymic education, T cells that are beneficial to the immune system are spared, while those T cells that might evoke a detrimental autoimmune response are eliminated. The mature T cells are then released into the bloodstream. Spleen -- The spleen is an immunologic filter of the blood. It is made up of B cells, T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and red blood cells. In addition to capturing foreign materials (antigens) from the blood that passes through the spleen, migratory macrophages and dendritic cells bring antigens to the spleen via the bloodstream.
The most important type of white blood cell is the lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are developed as either T-cells or B-cells. A B-cell is specifically designated to a certain virus and so when that virus does enter the body, the B-cell will produce millions of antibodies to eliminate the virus. T-cells are designed to detect the cells in the body that contain viruses and when they detect the cell they collide with it and eliminate it. The General Adaptation Syndrome model suggested that stress does lead to illness as the body’s resources become insufficient due to severe stress.