Anxiety has a significant affect on athletes and garners numerous research studies pertaining to performance. Anxiety, like motivation, occurs from a combination of personal, situational, mental, and physical factors. First, Hoar (2007) describes trait anxiety as a consistent part of a person’s disposition, whereas state anxiety changes depending on the situation. Second, the author posits that cognitive anxiety can affect mental processes which translate into the reduced ability to concentrate, conversely somatic anxiety affects athletes physiologically, often resulting in symptoms like clammy hands and a racing heartbeat. Hoar (2007) discusses that athletes often perceive anxiety differently based on situational factors.
First of all, more research must be done on concussions and athletes must be more informed about the risks they are taking. Secondly, the athletic community must look at the role of technology in sports and decide how it should be applied to help improve this situation. Finally, the governing bodies of sport must implement rule changes to protect athletes from unnecessary risks during competition. Until these issues are addressed, this alarming trend of long-term brain injury will continue throughout the sporting world. A concussion is most often defined as a trauma induced alteration in mental status that may or may not involve loss of consciousness (Leclerc 2).
Used rather loosely, the term may relate to any kind of pressure, be it due to one's job, schoolwork, marriage, illness or death of a loved one. The common denominator in all of these is change. Loss of familiarity breeds this anxiety with any change being viewed as a "threat". The issue of anxiety is an important aspect of performance. Whether it is during the tense moments of a championship game or amidst that dreaded History exam, anxiety affects our performance via changes in the body, which can be identified by certain indicators.
Therefore, people trying to manage their emotions(fear and anxiety)or presence of fear-related pain in order to have a higher effectiveness of motor control. ‘Effects of anxiety on performance’ has been one of the main focuses to investigate on motor control. Most of the research has shown that the emotion of fear and anxiety may alter the result of the performance. In recent days, anxiety has been viewed as an antagonistic emotion that impairs on performance, especially for ... ... middle of paper ... ...effectiveness of rehabilitation of chronic pain. • The belief of pain avoidance may limit any activity that causing pain or pain danger.
Whether an athlete is retained for the next year is subject to player evaluation by coaches and directors within the academy, thus requiring athletes to demonstrate competency as well as achieving success (Isoard-Gautheur, Guillet-Ducas & Duda, 2012; Crust, Nesti & Littlewood, 2010). Due to the stressful and high pressure nature of this achievement context in academies, the question of how to ensure athletes realize their sporting potential without experiencing athletic burnout has become increasingly important (Isoard-Gautheur, Guillet-Ducas & Duda, 2012). Research into this process has highlighted various factors such as perfectionism (Lemyre, Hall & Roberts, 2008; Gould, Tuffey, Udry & Loehr, 1997) and stress-coping techniques (Coakley, 1992) as being important in athletic burnout, but has also shown certain motivational factors ( ) to play an influential ... ... middle of paper ... ...logy, 8, 36-50. Smith, R. E. (1986). Toward a cognitive affective model of athletic burnout.
Stress According to the American Institute of Stress, stress can be defined as an individual’s response, physical, mental or emotional, to an event that causes a demand for change (Selye, 1936). For athletes, that demand for change can be caused by an injury, which ultimately can have a significant impact on overall stress levels. While a physical injury can cause psychological stress, mental trauma can similarly affect an athlete physically. An athlete’s psychological stability has a great affect on an athlete’s susceptibility to pain and can alter the response to and recovery from an injury (Ahern, 1997). Cognitive Appraisal Many times, an athlete’s psychological response to an injury is impacted greatly on their perception of their injury, rather than the actual injury itself.
Choking, as defined in this article, refers to “a critical deterioration in skill execution leading to substandard performance that is caused by an elevation in anxiety levels under perceived pressure at a time when successful outcome is normally attainable by the athlete”. A point to take note of is that to date, researchers have not been able to entirely agree on an operational definition of ‘choking’. This can be seen where Mesagno, Marchant, and Morris (2009) defined choking as “the critical deterioration in the execution of habitual processes that results from an increase in anxiety under perceived pressure”. Although there are many definitions being proposed, what is critical is that the definitions all point in the same direction where a player who is experiencing choking is unsuccessful when he is typically supposed to be successful and this also occurs when the final result of the competition has yet to be determined. 2 models of choking were mentioned in this article: i. Self-Focus Model ii.
This athlete can be afraid of many things ranging from them never getting better to never getting to play again to being afraid of the unknown. In order to conquer this fear the athletic trainer needs to help reassure the athlete about their injury. This can be done by presenting the truth about the injury and rehab process in a manner they can understand and gaining the athlete’s trust in the athletic trainer. A common secondary reaction is anger. During this time the athlete may have an angry or hostile attitude and the person around the athlete at the time often takes the force of the anger.
In our life we experience anxiety at some point. However, if we use anxiety appropriately, we can use it to so performers will perform at their best level. Top sportsmen and entertainers, will grab on anxiety as a way of help, to help them achieve the best possible outcome they can achieve. However, anxiety only becomes a problem if you are not able to manage it, control it, or when it gets in the way of your daily routine. According to Kremer and Moran (2008) “one reason why we tend to get uptight before competition could be related the pressure of being observed.
Self-presentation by definition is “the process by which people monitor and control the impressions others form of them in social situations (Leary & Kowalski, 1990). In essence, this is impression management in which we are able to omit or present aspects of the self in order to make a desired impression. Self-presentation may be a an issue that leads to risky behaviors, sport choice, anxiety, and self-handicapping. Research has shown that self-presentation affects athletes in many ways. Research of sources of stress during competition showed that the most frequent source of stress was significant others, competitive anxiety, and social-evaluation and self-presentation (James, & Collins, 1997).