Psychological Factors According to the research, there have been many psychological problems found in adolescents who abuse alcohol. The majority of the research has been done in order to solve the question of whether or not these psychological factors are present before an adolescent abuses alcohol, or after the alcohol abuse has occurred. In the research done by Rhode, Lewinsohn, and Seeley (1996), they used a community sample of 1,507 adolescents between the ages of fourteen and eighteen. The adolescents were classified into the categories of abstainers, experimenters, social drinkers, problem drinkers, and abuse and/or dependent groups. In this study, 373 subjects met the criteria for depression, 15 were bipolar, 93 suffered from manic core symptoms, and 124 had an anxiety disorder (Rhode et al., 1996).
The BPD group was subdivided into tw... ... middle of paper ... ...& Tull, M. T. (2010). The relationship between emotion dysregulation and deliberate self-harm among inpatients with substance use disorders. Cognitive Therapy and Research , 34, 544-553 . doi: 10.1007/s10608-009-9268-4 (Gratz & Tull, 2010) Linehan, M. M., Schmidt III, H., Dimeff, L. A., Craft, J. C., Kanter, J., & Comtois, K. A. (1999).
Substance Abuse; Vol. 31 (2); 79-85. Doi: 10.1080/08897071003641271 McCrady, B S., Epstein, E., Cook, S, Jensen, N K., Ladd, B O.; (Sep, 2011). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors; Vol 25(3); 521-529. Doi: 10.1037/a0024037 Springer, J. F, Sale, E, Kasim, R, Winter, W, Sambrano, Soldad, C, (2004).
(SAMHSA, 2011) Early substance abuse often includes such substances as tobacco, alcohol, inhalants, marijuana, and prescription drugs such as sleeping pills and anti-anxiety medicines. (SAMHSA, 2013) If drug abuse persists into later adolescence, abusers typically become more heavily involved with marijuana and then advance to other drugs, while continuing their abuse of tobacco and alcohol. (SAMHSA, 2013) Studies have also shown that abuse of drugs in late childhood and early adolescence is associated with greater drug involvement. (SAMHSA, 2013) However, some research has shown that a number of adolescents may not progress to abusing other drugs. (SAMHSA, 2013) National research shows that the early initiation of substance use has been associated with alterations in brain functioning, ... ... middle of paper ... ...ce of Applied Studies.
Further than that, researchers were wondering about the relationship between PTSD, DT(distress tolerance) and SUD treatment completion. And the goal of th... ... middle of paper ... ... posttreat- ment functioning and coping of substance abuse patients with posttrau- matic stress disorder. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 13, 105–114. doi:10.1037/0893-164X.13.2.105 Read, J. P., Brown, P. J., & Kahler, C. W. (2004). Substance use and posttraumatic stress disorders: Symptom interplay and effects on out- come.
It is suggested that depression is actually a result of a combination of certain factors, such as biological and psychosocial factors (Kendler 1995, www.surgeongeneral.gov 2004). Most likely, depression is the result of a chemical imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain (NYU 2004). Thes... ... middle of paper ... ...ent of pharmacotherapies for clinical depression in children and adolescents. Drug Safety. Jan; 20 (1):59-75.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2011.00973.x Winokur, G., Coryell, W., Akiskai, H. S., Maser, J. D., Keller, M. B., Endicott, J., Mueller, T. (1995). Alcoholism in manic-depressive (bipolar) illness: familial illness, course of illness, and the primary-secondary distinction. The American Journal of Psychyatry,152(3). http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleID=170880
Substance abuse among teenagers and young adults continues to call for a national concern for a number of reasons, one of them being the impact of these illicit substances on their health immediately or in their later lives. This research will concentrate on the abuse of cocaine, cannabis and ecstasy. Reports from various agencies frequently describe drug users as severely impaired health wise, recent research suggests that these outcomes are not extremely severe as people thought (Edwards, 2004). A thorough review of present literature suggests that substance abuse can leave the users vulnerable to a number of health problems. Many of these problems however can be tackled with a diversity of interventions.
(2011) Substance Use Disorder and ADHD: Is ADHD a Particularly Specific Risk Factor? Journal of Attention Disorders 16 (4) pp. 325-332 Wilens, T. E., Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., Gunawardene, S. (2003). Does Stimulant Therapy of Attention-Defecit/Hyperactivity Disorder Beget Later Substance Abuse? Pediatrics 111 (1) pp.
Biological Psychiatry, 48(6), 486-504. Wiste, A. K., Arango, V., Ellis, S. P., Mann, J. J., & Underwood, M. D. (2008). Norepinephrine And Serotonin Imbalance In The Locus Coeruleus In Bipolar Disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 10(3), 349-359. Young, L., Warsh, J. J., Kish, S. J., Shannak, K., & Hornykeiwicz, O.