Antibiotic resistance awareness between public, antibiotics dispensing and prescribing patterns in Najaf, Iraq

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Antibiotic resistance awareness between public, antibiotics dispensing and prescribing patterns in Najaf, Iraq
Mustafa Al Mosawi1, Ali Albakaa1, Haydar Alameen1, Hussein Fakhereldeen1 Yousif Naji2, Zaid Hayder Alathari1 & Ali Al-Behadili3
From 1 Faculty of Medicine , University of Kufa, Najaf , Iraq, 2 Al-Kindy College of Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq, 3 The Sahlgrenska Academy , University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden
Introduction
Antibiotics are considered one of the most important discoveries in the last century. When antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections, some of bacteria can respond by becoming resistant to the antibiotic used. This response is a natural phenomenon for survival by bacteria. Therefore, antibiotics can become less effective. Many patients worldwide suffer harm due to antibiotic resistance because bacterial infections are not susceptible any more to treatment (1).
There is inadequate information about the mechanisms, conditions, and factors that lead to mobilization, selection and movement of resistant bacteria or resistant genes into and between animal and human populations (2).
No country can be isolated from this global problem even countries with preventive programs and policies (3). Antibiotic resistance is thus a global public health challenge of paramount importance (1, 4). The evolution of antibiotic resistance threatens the success of medical interventions at all levels of health care (1, 3, and 4).
There is ecological evidence as well as evidence at the individual patient level (5) from western world that the prevalence of resistance is positively correlated with prescription of antibiotics (6). Therefore improving prescribing practices can prevent further increase in anti...

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... living in Najaf. 71% (250/350 persons) participated. 117 of participants were women (47%) and the rest were men. Majority of participants (45%) aged between 20-25 years. 150 persons thought that antibiotics can treat cold and flu, while 62 persons agreed that irrational use of antibiotics is correlated with antibiotic resistance ( Table I ).
Study II: Private pharmacies dispensing patterns
Majority of private pharmacies (73%) had prescribed different kinds of antibiotics such tetracycline and streptomycin for adults posed as they had acute diarrhea. However, antibiotics dispensing was relatively low for simulated fever clients compared to acute diarrhea group (table II).
Study III: Prescribing patterns for outpatient in clinics of two hospitals
A total 2563 forms were included in this study; of these 1550 forms were conducted in outpatient clinics of Alsadr teaching

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