Anthropogenic Forces: Urbanisation

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Urbanisation is one of the most influential, irrevocable and evident anthropogenic forces in the world. It is specified by the World Health Organisation (2014) as the “demographic transition from rural to urban and is associated with shifts from an agriculture-based economy to mass industry, technology, and service.” In the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects report (2006, p.3), it is anticipated that 4.9 billion people on Earth are expected to become urban residents by 2030, in comparison to the current data of 1.92 billion.
This widespread phenomenon has prominently shaped cities into thriving economic and industrial hotspots all over the world. As a result, there is a rising trend in the density of population in urbanised cities as people from the country side move into these metropolitan areas in search for profitable jobs. The residents of urban cities enjoy many benefits; technological advancements, education and recreational facilities. However, it is also important to address the issues brought about by urbanisation like environmental problems, overcrowding and the widening gap between rich and poor. This essay will focus on transport problems in Singapore and examine the policies taken to resolve the issues. It will explain why the ERP system is not directly solving the problem, unlike the Certificate of Entitlement (COE) implemented which is a straightforward, efficient and effective method.
Description of problem
As described by Rodrigue, Comotios and Slack (2013), urban areas “are complex spatial structures that are supported by transport systems.” It can be seen that cities are highly reliant on their transport systems and making sure they are as efficient as possible. Airports, railway and motorised vehicles...

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