Social control theory has become one of the more widely accepted explanations in the field of criminology in its attempt to account for rates in crime and deviant behavior. Unlike theories that seek to explain why people engage in deviant behavior, social control theories approach deviancy from a different direction, questioning why people refrain from violating established norms, rules, and moralities. The theory seeks to explain how the normative systems of rules and obligations in a given society serve to maintain a strong sense of social cohesion, order and conformity to widely accepted and established norms. Central to this theory is a perspective which predicts that deviant behavior is much more likely to emerge when social constraints and bonds between the individual and rest of society are either weak or simply not present. The bonds that discourage crime are strengthen through relationships between the individual and social institutions such as the family, schools, judicial/policing systems etc.
It is important, therefore, for criminologists to create an understanding to members of the society regarding the root cause of crime and what dictates the behaviour of individuals who are considered to be criminals (Tierney 2009). Criminology has often been defined as a field of study where scholars from different disciplines in the society come together to find answers to problems identified in the society. Sociological approaches, however, have influenced theoretical conclusions in criminology. That however has not limited other factors like biological factors as explained by Walsh (2000) and Wright and Boisvert (2009). Psychological theories in criminology have also determined a given level of perception developed by the society states Durrant and Ward (2012).
In this research paper I will summarize three important theories of criminality. In criminology, examining why people commit crime is very important, but there is always a debate in how crime should be handled and prevented. The biological theory, focusses on the study of social behavior and structures. The sociological theory, evaluates crime as a social problem, and not as an individual problem. And psychological theory suggest that behavior of crime is the result of individual’s differences in thinking process.
1. Criminology Criminology is the science of studying how laws are made, the breaking of laws, and the social reaction to the breaking of laws. Criminologists research past criminal events to contribute to decrease the crime rates and develop a society that is less vulnerable to criminal acts. There are different theories that have emerged over the years that have helped criminologists to get to solid conclusions on the relation between crime and society. The study of criminology is important because it helps society understand what the crimes are, and how criminals who commit this crimes are punished.
However biological reasons cannot solely be the cause of criminal behavior. Therefore, one must look to other sources as to how a criminal mind is developed. Social and environmental factors also are at fault for developing a person to the point at which they are lead to committing a criminal act. Often, someone who has committed a violent crime shows evidence of a poorly developed childhood, or the unsuitable current conditions in which the subject lives. In addition if one studies victimology which is the role that the victim plays in the crime, it is apparent that there are many different causes for criminal behavior.
Criminology is the study of crime and criminals; a branch of sociology. More accurately, it is the study of crime as a social trend, and its overall origins, its many manifestations and its impact upon society as a whole. That makes it more a form of sociology than a law enforcement tool. But the trends it studies have a huge impact on the way the police do their jobs, the way society treats its criminals, and the way a given community goes about maintaining law and order. The writer will describe and give examples of the three perspectives of viewing crimes.
Criminology is the study of criminals and crime, but more importantly, why individuals commit a crime and why they behave differently in certain situations. When this is understood, methods of preventing and controlling crime are discussed and put into practice. There are several different theories explaining why people commit a crime, but the ones that I will be focusing on are the theories in the neoclassical school of criminology: Rational choice theory and the Routine activity theory. The aim of this essay is to attempt to discuss the contribution of the neoclassical school of criminology to crime and crime prevention through the use of explanations and critiques of the different theories. The Classical school of criminology was a development
The relationship between crime and intention To begin with, this paper will investigate the Crime and the different reasons why they are committed and whether or not those who commit certain crimes with good intentions are blameless or not. In order to determine if a crime is acceptable in certain situations or not the term “crime” has to be defined and the different motives why people commit crimes have to be clarified. Most people’s understanding of a crime is that it is an action punishable by society. According to Oxford dictionary, crime is “an action or omission which constitutes an offence and is punishable by law.” Although this is the most common and generally accepted definition, there are many ambiguities regarding what it is that defines an action that is punishable. Who determines what actions are punishable and what actions are not?
Strain theories of criminal behaviour have been amongst the most important and influential in the field of criminology. Taking a societal approach, strain theories have sought to explain deficiencies in social structure that lead individuals to commit crime (Williams and McShane 2010). Strain theories operate under the premise that there is a societal consensus of values, beliefs, and goals with legitimate methods for achieving success. When individuals are denied access to legitimate methods for achieving success, the result is anomie or social strain. This often leads an individual to resort to deviant or criminal means to obtain the level of success that they are socialized to pursue.
Last, this paper will Definition One of the major problems that persist in our “structured society” is crime. Theorists have two main perspectives that are used to explain crimes which are the consensus and conflict view. From the consensus view, crime is the introduction of deviance in a structured society based around laws. People in society create laws collectively in order to maintain social order. This creates a democracy, which is where “law serves people equally, and persons who violate the law represent a unique subgroup” (Winfree & Abadinsky, 2010, pg4).