In contrast, formative assessment draws on information gathered in assessment process to identify learning needs and hence adjusting teaching accordingly. Summative assessment is also referred as assessment of learning whereas formative assessment, as assessment for learning. The reason for raised importance of assessment derives from the increasing realisation of the value of continuous assessment in informing teaching and improving learning. In this essay, a brief description of the main features, principles and strategies that underpin the concept of both types of assessment has been discussed. Findings about their impact and effect on teaching and learning are presented.
In this paper a critical analysis of backward design and its effect on student achievement. A critical analysis of fact-based practices that teacher can use now to improve student achievement will be discussed. Finally, a discussion of the challenges a teachers will face when creating a culture of learning. Backward Design Baldrige (2012), states highly effective schools uses assessment data to improve proce... ... middle of paper ... ...ive school culture is a must if the education system in America is going to see real reform. Works Cited Baldrige National Quality Program (2007).
Developing higher education teaching skills through peer observation and collaborative reflection. Innovations in Education and Training International, 35, 161-170. Nias, J., Southworth, G., & Campbell, P. (1992). Whole curriculum development in the primary school. London:
A strong instructional component focuses on improving teaching and learning by refining the existing curriculum, or by introducing new and more structured curricula. Continuing professional development and other strong supports focused on improving instruction enhances teacher quality (Fleischman & Heppen, 2009). The second element is a school’s structure, describing its organization and ability to deliver educational services to students (Fleischman & Heppen, 2009). Examples include lengthening instructional time for certain subjects or creating smaller learning communities within the larger school (Fleischman & Heppen, 2009). Finally, the third element described by Fleischman and Heppen (2009) depicted strong governance and addressed the operations and management of schools, affecting the way a school is managed.
The activities and content, which must be included in teacher professional development, include student learning, skills of the teacher and the subject matter (Jogthong & Pimolbunyong, 2009). There are two categories of studies into the professional development and student achievement. The first category mainly focuses on the traditional teaching skills of teachers. The ability of a teacher in allocating adequate time for lessons is the area of assessment so that the teacher adequately develops his or her ability to allow sufficient time for student learning (Frampton & Vaughn, 2003, p. 292). The development of the teacher therefore should focus on enabling the teacher to be able to apply critical thinking and taking all learning factors into consideration in ... ... middle of paper ... ...wmann, F. (2001).
London: Routledge Falmer. Gillies, R. M., Ashman, A. & Terwel, J (2008) The Teachers Role In Implementing Cooperative Learning in the Classroom. Lausanne: Springer. Oates (2010) Could Do Better: Using international comparisons to refine the Natioanl Curriculum in England, London: Cambridge Assessment.
M. (1997). A theoretical framework for the role of classroom assessment in motivating student effort and achievement. Applied Measurement in Education 10 (2): 161–80. • Brookhart, S. M. (2007). Expanding views about formative classroom assessment: A review of the literature.
It is important to note that the use of technology in the classroom can foster learning and improve student’s critical and reflective thinking skills. Teachers and administrators should select materials and technology that are developmentally appropriate and designed to engage the interest in learning. An effective leader has a vision of learning and allows students to set individual goals and plans to reach these goals; the use of technology can increase students’ success. Since the educational reform of No Child Left Behind, educators have struggled to meet the learning standards set by their state and federal government. High academic standards in all core curriculum areas and accountability through assessment are an important aspect in the educational arena.
Our classroom textbook makes note of alternative implementation approaches to support their call to action. Formative assessment is not a single entity, it states, but rather a levels approach. Where school wide implementation is necessary, along with classroom climate shift, student-learning tactic adjustment, and teacher instructional adjustment. The authors state that teachers need tremendous support, school wide implementation and training, along with adapting formative assessment to the needs of their students. Works Cited On the Impact of Formative Assessment on Student Motivation, Achievement, and Conceptual Change Yue Yin ab ; Richard J. Shavelson c ; Carlos C. Ayala d ; Maria Araceli Ruiz-Primo e ; Paul R. Brandon 1 f ; Erin Marie Furtak g ; Miki K. Tomita ch ; Donald B.