According to Lewis and associates, DM is a chronic disease that affects multiple body systems. For the purpose of this paper, only DM type 2 will be discussed based on the assumption that a majority of patients aged 60 years or older have this type. The primary defects of this disease consist of insulin resistance, decreased insulin production, inappropriate glucose production by the liver, and alterations in production of adipokines. Insulin resistance is the result of defects in the body’s insulin receptors. This finding predates all cases of DM type 2 and the development of impaired glucose tolerance. In insulin resistance, beta cells in the pancreas are stimulated to increase insulin production to compensate for the lack of response by the insulin receptors. Gradually, the beta cells begin to fail to secrete enough insulin to meet the body’s demands resulting in hyperglycemia. As a result of increased glucose in the liver, the liver begins to malfunction and release glucose at inappropriate times, thereby worsening hyperglycemia. Adding to the problem, glucose and fat metabolism is altered in adipose tissue, which is generally abundant in those with DM type 2. (Lewis et al., 2011)
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic and life threatening disease that has become a major health problem worldwide. In the United States, Diabetes is the leading cause of health complications, including new cases of blindness, end stage liver disease, and leg or foot amputation (Rosdahl, 2008). According to the American Diabetes association, 25.8 million children and adults in the United States have diabetes. In 2007, diabetes was listed as the underlying cause on 71,382 death certificates and was listed as a contributing factor on an additional 160,022 death certificates. Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin, resulting in high blood sugar. There are 3 types of diabetes; type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Although the disease can be considered deadly, diabetes is very manageable if one adjusts necessary lifestyle and behavioral changes.
Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic condition which afflicts millions of people around the world. It is related to the insulin hormone, which is secreted by cells in the pancreas, regulates the level of glucose in the bloodstream and supports the body with breaking down the glucose to be used as energy. In someone who has diabetes, the body doesn’t produce enough insulin or cells don’t respond to the insulin that is produced. There are three main types of diabetes, type 1, type 2, and gestational. I will be discussing type 1 and type 2.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease that is modifiable and preventable through diet and exercise. The incidence of T2DM is propagated by a sedentary lifestyle and excessive caloric intake. Maintenance of a desirable body weight, diet, and exercise are the mainstay therapy for T2DM (Buttaro, Trybulski, Bailey, & Sanberg-Cook, 2013).
Type II diabetes, or also commonly known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a condition that affects the body’s main source of energy, called glucose which is the sugar used in cellular respiration to produce ATP for the body to function. This type of diabetes affects the way the body metabolizes this energy source. It affects both men and women, mostly adults, but with the increase of childhood obesity in the past years, the probability of obese children getting the condition is also on the rise. This form is also found more in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and of course the aged. This condition is more common in developing or developed countries. According to www.diabetes.org, type II diabetes is the most common form of diabetes and according to (NIH) illustrates that type II makes up about 90% of cases, and the last 10% from type I diabetes. The rates have increased in the last 50 years by over 200 million people and type II diabetes is thought to be related to obesity. Type II occurs when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin to keep the correct balance in the body or the cells ignore that insulin, which is called insulin resistance. The function of insulin is to be able to use glucose for energy. The way insulin does this starts when we eat food, which is then broken down to form glucose, absorbed into the bloodstream where glucose is given off to body cells to break it down, and finally use it for energy. Starvation of cells for energy and high blood glucose levels, hyperglycemia, occurs when the glucose builds up in the blood causing multiple problems if not treated properly, including possibly death. The following paper on type II diabetes will discuss the symptoms and signs, causes, r...
Diabetes mellitus is a collection of metabolic disorders of protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism that results in defects in insulin sensitivity and/or insulin secretion. The incidence of T2DM is increasing and has been attributed to increasing obesity, the Western-style diet, an increasing minority population, and a sedentary lifestyle.1 Type 2 is a combined insulin resistance and relative deficiency in insulin secretion. It is associated with both macrovascular and microvascular complications. Diagnosis is contingent on four criteria: FPG >126 mg/dL, a 2-hour OGTT of >200 mg/dL, a casual plasma glucose level of >200 mg/dL with symptoms of diabetes, or a HbA1c >6.5%.1 The diagnosis should be repeated to confirm if obvious hyperglycemia is not present. Goals of therapy are to attain normoglycemia, reduce the progression/onset of retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy complications, and improve the quantity and quality of life. Metformin should be included in therapy, as it is the only oral antihyperglycemic medication that will reduce the risk of total mortality.1 Type 2 treatment usually requires the use of combination drug therapy, including oral and/or injected agents and insulin to achieve glycemic goals due to the persistent loss in pancreatic beta cell function over time. Cardiovascular disease risk factors must be managed aggressively to reduce the risk for death or adverse cardiovascular events. Antiplatelet therapy is needed as a secondary prevention strategy. Also need aggressive management of dyslipidemia and treatment of hypertension. A cornerstone of type 2 diabetes treatment is lifestyle modification, dietary restriction of fat, weight loss, and aerobic exercise for 30 minutes 5 times per week.1 To have a succe...
In orthopedic surgery, iliac bone graft which is commonly used for treatment nonunion or spinal fusion is contained multipotential stem cells or mesenchymal progenitor cells. These cells are found approximately 1 in 10,000 nucleated cells in the bone marrow. Friedenstein et al. (1970) reported that a rare population of cells was found by plastic-adherent ability (Friedenstein et al., 1970). These cells are capable of proliferation and mesenchymal lineages differentiation (Pittenger et al., 1999, Caplan, 1991). Unique antigens of MSCs (hMSCs) are controversy and the limited popularity of sorting cells techniques are not as widely used as gradient media in MSC isolation. Most MSC populations have been isolated by plastic adherent ability which is similar to that originally used by Friedenstein. Direct BM plating method is commonly used for cells from small animal (Lennon and Caplan, 2006, Nadri et al., 2007) but in human bone marrow, Density gradient centrifugation is the most commonly used method for isolating MSCs.
The severity of the condition is quite a threat and demanding in that, if not treated on time can result in a string of other health complications. These include arthritis, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and worst of all leads to death. The condition can be termed as manageable in a wide percentage of the patients with the only challenge being its sluggish emergence which eclipses the possibility of a perfect or early diagnosis should the condition occur (Hasnain, 2004).
One of the most serious (and misunderstood) diseases that affects our country today is type II diabetes. While many people may not understand exactly what type II diabetes is, it is actually quite simple: "Type II diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose)- your body's main source of fuel" (Mayo Clinic, 2006). Type II diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, with approximately 90 to 95% of the 21 million Americans who suffer from diabetes have type II diabetes. It has been estimated that one-third of people with type II are not aware that they have it; if it goes undiagnosed for a long period of time the disease can become life-threatening (Mayo Clinic, 2006).
During the weeks of February 7 through February 17, I observed a total hip arthroplasty on a 56-year-old Caucasian female patient who suffered from a femoral neck fracture and damage to the acetabulum. The fracture was a result from a car accident where the patient's knees collided with the dashboard, forcing the femur into the hip and breaking the femur.