Development throughout the lifespan goes through many stages. According to Erikson, who is a renowned developmental theorist, development throughout the lifespan is psychosocial. Erikson’s theory is still prominent in today’s models of personalities and developmental psychology. Erikson believed that you had to move through each stage to be successful in subsequent stages. The stages of psychosocial development start at birth.
Erikson believes a person’s personality changes throughout their lifespan and primarily focuses on ego. Furthermore, ego is a person’s sense of self-importance or self- acceptance. This is a major factor when discussing personality because how we perceive ourselves, reflects onto others. Erikson’s eight stages of psychological development consist of infancy, early childhood, preschool, middle school, adolescence, young adulthood, middle age and old age. He indicates that during each stage of life a person experiences a psychological crisis, which could aid in a negative or positive result. During the infancy stage, the psychological crisis is trust vs. mistrust, meaning total dependence on the mother or father. If either or both parents show love and attention, then the child will develop trust, or otherwise mistrust if neglected. Early childhood, around the ages two to three years old a child becomes more mobile and shows signs of independence. The caregivers will either assist the child in all their needs or wait patiently as they figure them out on their own. Erikson distinguishes the importance of allowing children to face their own challenges with the tolerance of failure. This will provide the willingness to push through hard times and overcome adversity. Stage 3, initiative vs. guilt describes the interaction between other children and their ability to make decisions. A child will initiate activity with others continuously when he or she feels secure. Nevertheless, when children are told ‘no’ they react with feelings of guilt. The fourth stage of Erikson’s theory begins to explain inferiority. In this stage, a student will be introduced to teachers who become a major part of a child’s psychological development. With encouragement, children will feel confident in themselves, whereas negative reinforcement may cause self-doubt. Identity vs.
Every year, more and more diseases and sicknesses need cures. The need for new medicine and treatments procedures causes animal research to increase. People that are involved in the fight for animal rights say that the animals should be protected just like humans. However, animal testing can find cures for deadly sick humans, which is more important than the very rare unfair abuse to animals. Animal testing should be allowed because although it can be bothersome to some animals, the outcomes are exaggerated, it creates procedures, and it helps find a cure to human health problems.
Erik Erikson, a German-born American who is a well known developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst, established the grand theory of psychosocial development. Throughout his theory, persistently stresses that one’s personality advances non-stop throughout the duration of several differential stages. Erikson’s theory also goes in depth to explain the immense impact of social experiences in one’s lifespan. The main element that is produced from his theory of psychosocial development is essentially ego identity. Ego identity can be defined as a sense of self, or better, the knowledge of one’s self that forms through a process within all social interaction. Contemporary
There are tremendous amount of debates that go on in this world on a daily basis. One of the most talked about debates of the century is that of animal rights and experimentations. This debate, also known in the animal rights community as vivisection, is one of the most difficult to understand. Individuals have numerous different outlooks on animals. Many individuals look upon animals as companions while others see animals as an object of advancing medical techniques. No matter what ones perception is of animals, the fact remains that animals are being exploited by research facilities and cosmetics companies all throughout the world. In spite of the fact that humans frequently benefit from successful animal experimentations, the pain, and occasionally death that often occurs is not worth the human benefit. Hence, animals should not be the use of research.
In Erik Erikson’s theory, he believes that all humans go through eight phases throughout their entire life. According to Erikson, during the early childhood development, a child passes through three phases. These three phases include the toddler (Autonomy v. Shame), preschool (Initiative v. Guilt), and elementary school (Industry v. Inferiority). You should be able to tell the difference of a child who is brought up in a healthy or unhealthy environment. Toddlers will take pride in their actions or they will throw temper tantrums. Preschoolers will take responsibility or accuse others for their behavior or actions. And children in the elementary school phase will either be successful or unsuccessful when learning new abilities. In his work, Erikson was trying to point out that “Each stage is an emotional crisis or a turning point, in personality, and the crisis in each stage must be successfully met for normal, healthy psychological development.” (Ciccarelli & White, 2015, p.
Erik Erikson was an American psychologist famous for his theory of psychosocial development. Erikson postulated that psychological and social factors played an enormous role in human development. The psychosocial theory brakes down human development into eight interdependent stages, with each stage having specific culminating goals and a pair of crises (Woolfolk, 2013, p. 99). The failure to achieve the goals of one stage could hinder the successful completion of subsequent stages.
The animal rights movement opposes organizations that use animals for research, food, clothing, and human entertainment. Since animals are often seen feeling pain and distress, they argue that animals deserve greater moral consideration and legal protection than human beings generally give them. The animal rights movement was designed to aid the animal protection, or animal welfare, movement, and strongly opposes the idea of animal experiments that lead to suffering or death . “Groups like People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA), and the Human Society continue to question the need for animal research and argue that alternatives are being neglected” (Ch. 17, pg.
January 1st, 1959, W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch describes how there should not be a lot of animal testing. Russell and Burch publish “The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique,” which introduces the principles of Refinement, Reduction, and Replacement which are called the Three R’s. Reduction explained that people should use fewer animals in experiments. Replacement explained the use of non-animal alternatives over animals whenever possible. Refinement explained how people should use techniques to alleviate or minimize the invasive procedures that could potentially cause pain, suffering or distress, and to the enhancement animal welfare for the animals still used. The testing of animals have been going on for a long time and even some people have tried to help animals have less extreme conditions while being tested on. There are cases when animals are being treated badly, The Huntington Life Science was beating the anim...
In Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, individuals can obtain unhealthy personalities as a result of how they were treated during each stage of their development. These stages are not in chronological order, but essential to development. I agree with Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development because it outlines specific stages everyone goes through in life and attaches a virtue. The theory is specific but not so definite that it cannot appeal to everyone’s personality development in some way. (Engler, 2014). Unlike Freud's stages of psychosexual development, Erikson does not limit these stages to a specific year of life, rather he uses stages such as infancy and
For countless decades humans have taken it upon themselves to take defenseless innocent wild animals to test and experiment on them. Ranging from powerful drugs and lotions to chemicals, vaccines, and packing materials. The practice of using animals for testing has been a controversial subject for the past thirty years. The question is whether animal testing is morally right or wrong. An integral part of the debate, over animal testing and experiments, mainly centers on the question of an animals moral status. Most people would agree that animals have some moral status. Which is why we find it wrong to abuse pets or needlessly hurt other animals.
...d do as the animal-rights activists say and treat animals with respect and compassion. Animals used for experimentation are still being tortures, experimented on, and killed today. The research animals’ lives lie in the hope that the animal-rights activists will put an end to animal research.
I play basketball, not only because it gives me a source of exercise, but it also allows me to be engaged in a competitive atmosphere again. To play basketball, you start knowing little and learn from your coach a lot more. It is important to learn how the game works from the different techniques of the game to the rules, goals, and communication that come with the game of basketball.
For centuries, the use of animal experimentation in the biomedical field has been questioned ethically. Do the benefits of animals used in research outweigh the pain that the animals endure? Animal rights activists will argue that there are new alternatives that are more accurate than animal testing. Nonetheless, scientists will continue to use animals for the advancement in the medical field because there have been various cases where animals have paved the way, medically, for humans to this day. Additionally, testing on animals instead of humans puts humans out of harms way. The first Animal Cruelty Act was created in 1835 to regulate the use of animals for scientific purposes. According to Franco (2013), the “Enactment of the 1986 Animals