The coronary arteries supply and maintain the myocardium. Coronary artery disease can cause a heart attack or hypertension when blood vessels get small or filled up with cholesterol, scar tissue, or calcium. Other problems can happen also. For instance disorders for the heart valves or for the heart muscle and pericardium. The heart is something you need every day you can't live with out it.
One of the most infamous diseases is the coronary heart disease, it is caused by over the top severe stress. While coronary heart disease is the plaque build up in there arteries which leads to the blockage of blood flow to the heart, which over all is one of the main causes of heart attacks, can actually lead to cardiac arrest. It is all one step that leads to another step that leads up the ladder. During a heart attack some muscle cells die, and while scar tissue replaces the once healthy tissue, it damages the hearts electrical
The external features of the heart consist of the pericardium. The function of the pericardium is to support and protect the heart. The inside of the pericardium is lined with a membrane that secrets a lubrication fluid which allows the pericardium to slide smoothly over the surface as the heart pumps. The internal features of the heart are quite a bit more complicated than the external features. The main features internally are the heart's four hollow spaces, which are referred to as the chambers (Clayman 86).
The aortic valve prevents the oxygenated blood from flowing back into the left ventricle. The aorta branches out to provide oxygenated blood to all parts of the body. The oxygen depleted blood is returned to the heart via the vena cava. Atrial systole Ventricular systole Ventricular Diastole
To withstand this pressure, elastic fibers interspersed along the artery walls allow the arteries to expand and recoil. Abnormally high blood pressure, however, will cause these muscles to thicken as a result of tears in the damaged artery walls trapping particles that aggregate as plaque. Progressive build-up of plaque ultimately leads to a narrowing of the arteries, subsequently diminishing blood flow to the heart and other body organs. This cascade of events triggered by high blood pressure illustrates why hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Affecting 1 in every 3 adults in the United States alone, hypertension substantially raises the risk for heart disease in an affected individual who, most likely, does not show any signs or symptoms.
Causes of blockage range from congenital tissue strands within or over the arteries to spasms of the muscular coat of the arteries themselves. By far the most common cause, however, is the deposition of plaques of cholesterol, platelets and other substances within the arterial walls. Sometimes the buildup is very gradual, but in other cases the buildup is suddenly increased as a chunk of matter breaks off and suddenly blocks the already narrowed opening. Certain factors seem to favor the buildup of these plaques. A strong family history of heart attacks is a definite risk factor, reflecting some metabolic derangement in either cholesterol handling or some other factor.
1 INTRODUCTION Heart is the basic part of the body. Heart-failure is a serious medical situation in which this master organ doesn’t operate properly. The malfunctioning of the heart may impact the whole body organs since it is affiliated to all the body parts through its arteries and veins. One of the most dangerous and insidious heart diseases is the heart attack. It can be delineated as a chest pain aligned with a constriction in the coronary vessels which is called atherosclerosis.
Coronary Artery disease is when plaque builds up in the arteries around the heart, which can cause a heart attack. Coronary Artery disease is also one of the leading causes of death of in the United States. Many different medical places are trying to come up with a resolution to this disease, however there are only temporary fixes. The United States is spending a major amount of money to try and find a solution. There are many different symptoms include chest pressure or pain, shortness of breath, pain or discomfort in the arms or shoulder, pain or discomfort in the jaw, neck or back, and feeling weak, light headed, or nauseous.
Surgical repair is very risky and does not have a high success rate, however, if surgery proves to be successful a patient’s prognosis greatly increases after 30 days. Perhaps the next time one is faced with the familiar imagery of a man grasping his chest and collapsing due to “heart disease,” instead of assuming the man suffered from the usual heart attack, one will remember that there are countless conditions that heart disease encompasses, and that aortic dissection remains one of the most deadly.
Key words: Coronary artery Disease (CAD), Statins, Endothelium, Caveolin. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of multifactorial chronic heart disease. It is a consequence of plaque buildup in coronary arteries. The arterial blood vessels, which begin out smooth and elastic become narrow and rigid, curtailing blood flow resulting in deprived of oxygen and nutrients to the heart . CAD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the worldwide.