Odle, Teresa. "Hemolytic Anemia." The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. 3rd ed. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 1752-1753. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 25 Mar. 2011.
Sickle cell anemia is a hereditary disorder that mostly affects people of African ancestry, but also occurs in other ethnic groups, including people who are of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern descent. More than 70,000 Americans have sickle cell anemia. And about 2 million Americans - and one in 12 African Americans - have sickle cell trait (this means they carry one gene for the disease, but do not have the disease itself).
Sickle Cell Anemia and Red Blood Cell Physiology Introduction Sickle cell anemia is a disorder in which the body makes crescent-shaped red blood cells. Normal red blood cells are disc-shaped. They move easily through your blood vessels and contain an iron rich protein called hemoglobin. This protein carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Sickle cells contain abnormal hemoglobin due to a mutation in the hemoglobin chain.
Rodak, B. F., Fritsma, g. A., & Doig, K. (2007). Hematology: Clinical Principles and applications. St. louis: Saunders Elsevier.
Anemia is a disorder of the blood. It occurs when your body does not produce enough erythrocytes or red blood cells. Without the erythrocytes oxygen cannot be adequately delivered to the tissues and organs throughout the body. There are several different types of anemia. Some of these include haemorrhagic, iron-deficiency, aplastic, and pernicious. Pernicious anemia is one of many types of the larger family of megaloblastic anemias. It is a condition in which the body cannot make enough healthy red blood cells because it doesn't have enough vitamin B12 circulating in the blood. It is characterized by an abnormal or megaloblastic type of erythropoiesis in which red blood cells appear larger than regular red blood cells. These large numbers of immature or incompletely developed cells do not function like healthy red blood cells leading to oxygen deficiency throughout the organs and tissues of the body. Since these cells are underdeveloped they also have a shorter life expectancy.
There are many types of anemia. All are very different in their causes and treatments. Some forms of anemia, like the anemia that develops during pregnancy are even considered normal. Some other types of Anemia include Folic acid deficiency anemia- when levels of folic acid are low because of inadequate dietary intake or faulty absorption, Pernicious anemia- when the inability of the body to properly absorb vitamin B12, Hemolytic anemia- when the red blood cells are destroyed prematurely, Sickle cell anemia-when inherited abnormality of hemoglobin and occurs mainly in people of African or Mediterranean decent, and Aplastic anemia- when there is a decreased bone marr...
Anemia is a medical condition which is a decrease in the count of red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to all of the body parts. Infants that are born premature are often anemic. Babies may develop Anemia for many reasons some of which are not developing enough red blood cells in the first few weeks after they are born, their red blood cells have a shorter life span than those in adults, and blood that is being taken for testing. Anemia in newborns is usually diagnosed with a Complete Blood Count (CBC). Many infants tend to have a mild form of Anemia that does not require any treatment. Infants who are anemic may stop breathing for 20 seconds or more, have a higher heart rate, and may feel sleepy. Treatments may include dietary iron supplements, and drugs that increase the production of red blood cells. Severe cases of Anemia which are caused by Hemolytic Disease in premature newborns weighing less than 2 pounds require red blood cell transfusions.
‘Thalassemia,’ on the other hand, is a disorder caused by the weakening and destruction of the red blood cells. People with thalassemia make less hemoglobin and fewer circulating red blood cells than normal, which results in mild or severe anemia.
For every million people only a few of them will get paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria which makes this a rare blood disease. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria affects both sexes and all ages equally. Patients with PNH suffer from a faulty or missing PGI-A gene which can be found within the erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is not an inherited disease but is considered an acquired disease because the hematopoietic stem cells over time begin to change and malfunction. This process of cell change is called somatic mutation. Although not all of the blood cells will have this faulty gene the ones that do will only be able to produce more mutated cells creating a cycle of increasing damaged cells that keeps expanding. The number of mutated cells a person with this disease has is what determines the degree to which they will suffer from the symptoms. As the number of PNH cells increases so does the symptoms. The PIG-A gene also plays a part in sending the signals to the body on how to make GPI anchors that secure compliment regulating proteins to blood cell membranes. When these protecting proteins lack the ability to attach they leave the blood cells vulnerable to attack from the body’s own immune system. Without compliment regulating proteins the immune system reacts as if the cells were an infection or bacteria and destroys them. When the body does not have sufficient red blood cells the condition is called hemolytic anemia. PNH also damages platelets (thrombocytes) interfering with the ability to form blood clots, because of th...
Sickle cell anemia is a blood disorder that is inherited from both parents in which the body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. In sickle cell anemia, the hemoglobin in red blood cells links together; resulting in the red blood cells to become rigid and a C-shaped. These deformed cells block blood and oxygen flow in blood vessels. Sickle cells deteriorate quicker than normal red blood cells, which results in anemia.