The ancient Egyptian and ancient Greek civilizations are two of the oldest known civilizations. The Egyptian civilization, based in the northern part of Africa, which started around 3150 BC and finished at the end of 31 BC. The ancient Greek started from 1100 BC until about 146 BC. There are several similarities and differences existed between these two civilizations, even though they co-existed during a period (about 1150 BC to 146 BC) Particularly, they were in different geographical areas.
Writing is one of the most significant developments of the ancient civilisation. Today, we could better understand the history of ancient Egypt and ancient Greece by analysis their writing system, because it could reflect several significant evidence…show more content…
In this essay, the author
Compares the ancient egyptian and ancient greek civilizations, and explains that they co-existed in different geographical areas.
Explains that writing is one of the most significant developments of ancient civilisation. we could better understand ancient egypt and ancient greece by analysing their writing system.
Explains that ancient egypt had four thousand years long history, from 3000 bc to the late first millennium ad.
Explains that hieroglyphs formed at the beginning of the old kingdom about 3000bc.
Explains that hieroglyphs were one of the earliest writing systems in the world, and the origin of them is essential to understand this language.
Explains that some of the depicted on rock images are also found on pottery vessels of early predynastic egypt, made during the naqada ii period.
Explains some of the depicted on naqada ii pottery are also found in rock images produced by prehistoric hunting communities living in the dessert.
Explains that ancient egyptians believed thoth was god of science, religion, philosophy, and the invention of language and writing is an important part of god's creation of a series of activities.
Explains that writing in the egyptian society was not only the writing of language but also the particular form of god given to the tools for the world.
Explains that the priest used hieroglyphs to write down prayers and texts related to life after death and the gods.
Explains that the book of the dead, a compilation of spells, and hieroglyphs were discovered on sarcophagi, tools and weapons, as well as jewels.
Explains that writing meant state service and brought with it state income. scribes were considered indispensable to the pharaohs.
Compares how ancient egyptians made ink by grinding coloured minerals into powder, then mixing the powder with liquid so that it was easier to use.
Explains that the greek alphabet was developed from the phoenician writing system in 2000 bc.
Explains that the greek used the phoenician alphabet and made a few changes. they changed the signs for which no consonantal equivalent was found and used it as an individual vowel sound
Explains that the greek alphabet has a smaller number of signs, which makes writing system more accessible than pictographic systems.
Analyzes herodotus' account about the producer of the greek alphabet. the phoenicians, including the gephyraians came with kadmos and settled this land, and they transmitted much lore to the hellenes.
Explains herodotus studied that cadmus might live sixteen years earlier in 2000 bc. he estimated the writing engraved on tripods in the temple of apollo at thebes.
Explains that the greek alphabet led to a series of improvement in greek society, especially the contribution of greek literature.
Concludes that ancient egypt was an enormous kingdom; it makes their society divide by different classes like a pyramid. the centralised politic environment caused serious impact on their culture and writing.
Who is a producer of the hieroglyph is a vital evidence? Unfortunately, the origin of the hieroglyphs is poorly understood. The surviving texts in the Egyptian language are written in the hieroglyphic script. However, during the excavation, the majority of the script were written on papyrus in hieratic and demotic, which are now lost. There was also a type of cursive hieroglyphic script used for religious documents on papyrus, as the Books of the Dead in the Ramesside Period, which was closer to the stone-carved hieroglyphs. Additionally, there was a stone-cut hieratic known as hieratic. Finally, the Coptic alphabet replaced the older writing system. The name for Egyptian hieroglyphic writing is "writing of the words of God." Hieroglyphs are applied in two ways in Egyptian texts: as ideograms that represent the idea depicted by the pictures; and commonly as phonograms denoting their phonetic…show more content…
Particularly, the contribution of Greek literature. During the Classic period, it witnessed a flourish in Greek literature. The Homeric Hymns was created with the Greek alphabet. Moreover, several Greek poets such as Hesiod, and Sappho. In 1963, anthropologists Jack Goody and Lan Watt published the article: The Consequences of Literacy Comparative Studies in Society and History. They argued that the flourish in Classic period mainly due to the application of new writing. It is a ‘’ democratic’’ script as opposite to the ‘’ theocratic’’ script in Egypt. The alphabet takes advantage of a socially-conventionalised pattern of sound in their language system.
In conclusion, both of two writing system were the major component of the ancient civilisation. Ancient Egypt was an enormous kingdom; it makes their society divide by different classes of people likes a pyramid. The centralised politic environment caused serious impact on their culture and writing that more involved in constructed great monumental building to Greece were democratic civilization and their Greek alphabet provided an equal opportunity for people to learn
The time span of Ancient Egypt Stretches over thousands of years. It lasted many periods and included many dynasty's. From the Neolithic Period, ca 5450-3850 B.C. to it's downfall at the Roman Period, ca 30 B.C. - A.D. 395. That is a long time.
In this essay, the author
Explains that ancient egypt lasted thousands of years and included many dynasties. archeologists must rely on many sources to understand everyday life of the ancient egyptians.
Explains that the ancient egyptians used three kinds of writings to write religious and secular texts. hieroglyphics use clearly distinguishable pictures to express both sounds and ideas.
Explains the second form of writing, hieratic, is as old as hieroglyphic. it is more cursive and is the result of a quick hand, usually drawing signs on papryus.
Explains that the last form of writing demotic started being used during the 25th/26th dynasty. it was a handwriting, but the strokes were illegible.
Explains that egyptian art gives an image of their selves and their culture. the belief in the afterlife was the reason for the embalming of bodies, statues, carvings and paintings.
Explains that mesopotamian civilizations lived in iraq and jordan between the euphrates and tigris rivers. they lasted from the urak period to the assyrian empire.
Explains that the akkadain script was a highly developed form of picture writing called cuneiform. it consisted of 600 words and syllable signs.
Explains that ancient egyptian and mesopotamian civilizations both have their unique parts, but the basis of language and religions is all stemmed from the
Beginning in roughly 3150 B.C., a civilization known as Ancient Egypt was formed in Northeastern Africa. This was calculated from a method that Egyptians used which was called chronology. Chronology was used to record rulers and dynasties, as well as events of importance.
In this essay, the author
Explains that ancient egypt was formed in 3150 b.c., using a method called chronology to record rulers and dynasties.
Explains that egyptian development began when king menes unified upper and lower egypt, forming a society that advanced over the centuries. the primary writing system for egyptians was hieroglyphics.
Explains that egyptians invented eye makeup, which was made out of soot and minerals, as a status symbol, protection against eye diseases, and thick coatings for thinking.
Describes the egyptians' invention of breath mints and toothpaste, which was made by boiling a blend of spices, resins, and honey.
Describes the egyptian method of mummification, wherein the deceased were taken to an ibu and washed. incisions were made in the abdominal region to remove most of the internal organs, excluding the heart.
Explains that the body is covered with natron or salt to dry out all bodily fluids. around forty days later, the salts are removed with water from the nile and covered heavily with oils.
Explains that pyramids were built to guard pharaohs or people of importance after their decease. ancient egyptian civilization ended in approximately 30 b.c.
Opines that although the ancient egyptian civilization did not last forever, the impact it has made on our society has lasted throughout the centuries. egypt is a fascinating country, so it is important to know about how it contributed to where we stand today.
During the Mesopotamia and Egypt times the writing systems were both similar by representing with pictures, this system was conveyed by anything other than simple nouns, and became increasingly abstract as it becomes more of an abstract concept. Cuneiform was the world’s earliest writing that was created by the Mesopotamia’s in Sumer. Cuneiform was known to develop between 3,300 and 3,200 BCE. The writing system function was both phonetically and semantically, rather than representing only from the pictures.
In this essay, the author
Compares the writing systems of cuneiform and hieroglyphs in mesopotamia and egypt. the writing system function was both phonetically and semantically, rather than representing only from pictures.
Explains that mesopotamia used cuneiform to communicate information about their crops and taxes.
Explains that hieroglyphs were created after the cuneiform sometime between 3,200 and 3,400 bce. symbols are drawn on the walls of the temple for decorations.
Explains that students believe that these differences mean that neither learned about writing from the other, but each developed it independently. hieroglyphs characters are more directly pictorial than those of the cuneiform.
The ancient Egyptians are known to have been a very peaceful society. The Pre-Dynastic civilization had pottery, tools and started the writing in hieroglyphic. They used gold for decoration. It is not really known where they got the idea of writing but it is thought that the Mesopotamian had an influence.
In this essay, the author
Explains that egypt is located in africa and known for the geographical site of the nile river.
Explains that the ancient egyptians were a peaceful society. the pre-dynastic civilization had pottery, tools, and started writing in hieroglyphic.
Explains that the archaic civilization is known for the unification. egypt unified under one king, the king narmer ruled all of the nile river.
Explains egypt's different time periods: the old kingdom, intermediate one, middle kingdom and the new kingdom.
Explains that egyptian pyramids were funerary monuments built for the pharaohs and their closest relatives. they date from the old kingdom and are located on the west bank of the nile river.
Explains that the pyramids were built to protect the tombs of rulers or other important persons in the 26th century bc.
Explains that egyptian pyramids were built with the help of slaves and were meant to be monuments to the pharaoh's greatness, filled with great treasures for the afterlife.
Explains that the pyramid's features are so large they can be seen from the moon. its base covers 13.6 acres (equal to about seven midtown manhattan city blocks).
Explains that the pyramid is located at the exact center of the earth's landmass. the earth has enough land area to provide 3 billion possible building sites for it.
Explains that the pyramid's cornerstones have balls and sockets built into them. it is subject to expansion and contraction movements from heat and cold, earthquakes, and other such phenomena.
Explains that while the bulk of the pyramid's core was constructed of 4,000-40,000 pound blocks of soft limestone, the outer layer was made of bright, polished stone.
Explains that the casing stones were so brilliant that they could literally be seen from the mountains of israel hundreds of miles away.
Explains that the egyptians recognized a quarry of precut stones that could casing stones were used to rebuild the new city of el kaherah plus cairo mosques and palaces.
Explains that modern technology cannot place 20-ton stones with greater accuracy than those in the pyramid. the 0.02-inch gap was designed to allow space for glue to seal and hold the stones together.
Explains that the great pyramid once rose to a height of 481 feet, but the top has been stripped. khafre's pyramid was only 10 feet lower than his father’s tomb.
Explains that the egyptian ruler ordered the pyramids to be built because they feared their remains would be disturbed by grave robbers.
Explains that herodotus estimated that 100,000 men labored for 20years to complete the great pyramid. 2.3 million stone blocks were used to build the pyramid.
Suggests that the pyramids' design may have been influenced by a religion based on sun worship.
Explains that the pyramids of giza were not the first built in egypt.
Explains that the oldest pyramid known is the step pyramid of king zoser saqqara. it has a larger mastaba as its nucleus and consists of six terraces of diminishing sizes, one built upon the other.
Describes the pyramid at maydum, built by snefru, founder of the 4th dynasty.
Explains that the most elaborate example of the temple complex is found at giza, where the 4th-dynasty pyramids of cheops, chephren, and mycerinus lie in close proximity to each other.
Explains that pepi ii of the 6th dynasty was the last great pyramid built by king mentuhotep ii.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were carved in stone, and later hieratic script was written on papyrus. However, Olmec glyphs was discovered on cylinders. Hence, Egyptians and Olmec had different types of writing, and different places to write.
In this essay, the author
Explains that civilizations emerged in egypt and mesoamerica between 3500 and 3000 b.c.e. considering the different aspects of civilization, historians can find some same characteristics and differences which are valuable for understanding civilization in-depth.
Compares egypt's central government with the olmec government, which was run by ruling elites and shamans and priests.
Compares the structure of central government in egypt and olmec. the vizier was directly responsible to the pharaoh and was in charge in the government bureaucracy.
Compares the social hierarchy and inequality in egypt and olmec, noting the pharaohs and shamans occupied the highest positions, while the majority of people worked the land and belonged to lower class.
Explains that egypt's middle class included merchants, artisans, scribes and tax collectors. they were comfortable, but not as elegant as upper class.
Compares egyptian and olmec's achievements in arts and science. both had accurate calendars and mathematical systems.
Compares egyptian and olmec's medical treatment, and explains that egyptians had stronger medical technology, but they had more advanced astronomical knowledge.
Explains that in olmec, archaeologists only found one type of writing: hieroglyphics, hieratic script, and scribes.
Explains that egyptian hieroglyphs were carved in stone, and later hieratic script was written on papyrus. however, olmec had different types of writing and different places to write.
Explains that egyptians and olmecs were polytheistic, and pharaohs, shamans were incarnation of gads or they can intervene with supernatural world.
Explains that egyptians believed the sun god and the land god, including atum which was in human form, re which had human body and falconhead, osiris which represented resurrection, isis... in olmec, people considered jaguar as the most powerful predator
Analyzes how egyptian and olmec were similar and differed, allowing historians to understand both civilization more deeply and clearly.
...e not necessarily able to write but archaeological discoveries…show that writing and reading were widely practiced…” (Millard 45)
In this essay, the author
Argues that the linear alphabet led to widespread literacy in ancient israel and other parts of the near east.
Analyzes william schniedewind's article, "orality and literacy in ancient israel", which discusses the research done by scholars tackling the issue of literacy and formalized education in ancient israel.
Analyzes how schniedewind discusses jamieson-drakes contributions to scribal education.
Analyzes how susan niditch argues that orality and literacy should be regarded as points along a spectrum and can coexist and influence each other even after written texts have come into existence.
Explains that philip davies believes that there was no large scribal class in ancient palestine during the iron age, but rather a few scribes that did most of the work.
Analyzes how e.w. heaton believes there was formalized scribal education in ancient israel, while crenshaw argues that the agricultural economy did not lend to literacy.
Analyzes schniedewind's excellent work showing research done by primarily biblical scholars as well as expressing his views on the importance of using both the bible and archaeology to reconstruct the presence of literacy.
Explains that rollston believes there was formalized scribal education in ancient israel. he argues that it would not have made sense for someone to become proficient in an alphabetic writing system within a few days.
Concludes that the precision, meticulousness, and consistency of the old hebrew script reflect formal, standardized scribal education.
Analyzes how alan millard discusses the varying degrees of literacy in ancient israel. he mentions legal papyri found in the bar-kokhba caves.
Explains king, philip j., and lawrence e. stager. life in biblical israel. louisville, ky: westminster john knox, 2001.
States that mandell, alice, "literacy, iron age." the oxford encyclopedia of the bible and archaeology.
Opines that millard, alan, could the words of jesus have been.
Explains rollston, christopher a., "scribal education in ancient israel: the old hebrew epigraphic evidence." bulletin of the american schools of oriental research.
Explains schniedewind, william m., "orality and literacy in ancient israel." religious studies review.
The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to record and communicate information about religion and government. Thus, they invented written scripts that could be used to record this
In this essay, the author
Explains that egyptian law was based on a common sense view of right and wrong, following the concept of ma'at.
Explains that the egyptian civilization lasted over 3,000 years and many of the beliefs and cultures changed. the people of ancient egypt were also influenced by the nile river.
Explains how egyptian traders traded gold, papyrus, linen and grain for cedar wood, ebony, copper, iron, ivory, and lapis lazuli. ships sailed up and down the nile river bringing goods to various ports.
Explains that ancient egypt was a successful culture for over 3,000 years. it had two 'kingdoms' that operated like two different countries.
Explains that the river nile encouraged agriculture by providing a source of irrigation and fertile black soil. agriculture created most of egypt's wealth.
Explains that ancient egyptians believed it was important to record and communicate information about religion and government. they invented written scripts that could record this information.
Ancient Greece vs. Ancient Rome
The older of the two, Ancient Greece was a civilization for three centuries, from 800 B.C. to 500 B.C. Ancient Greece advanced in art, poetry, and technology. More importantly, Ancient Greece was the age where the polis, or city-state, was invented. The polis was a defining feature in Greek political life for a few hundred years (Ancient Greece).
Early Greece, before its archaic period, was small and scattered farming villages.
In this essay, the author
Compares ancient greece vs. ancient rome and explains how the polis, or city-state, was invented in ancient greece.
Explains that ancient greece was growing rapidly. population pressure was driving men away from their home city-state and into sparsely populated areas of greece.
Explains that ancient rome began as a small town on the tiber river in central italy in the eighth century b.c. it grew and encompassed europe, britain, western asia, northern africa, and the mediterranean islands.
Explains that the roman empire's downfall was one of the most dramatic implosions in the history of human civilization.
Compares rome and greece, stating that both have differences, but similarities. rome adopted ideas from the ancient greek civilization and incorporated them into their own civilization.
Explains that rome adopted many ideas from greece to incorporate into their own civilization. the greeks created corinthian, doric, and ionic architecture styles that influenced the roman’s grecian style.
Explains that the greeks spoke ancient greek, and the romans spoken latin. both cultures had different kinds of ruling governments, ranging from kings and oligarchs to totalitarian, racist, warrior culture.
Compares rome and greece's history as city-states. both grew and evolved into bigger and better civilizations that lasted for hundreds of years.
Compares the ancient greek and ancient roman civilizations, stating that their practices and ideas have been carried throughout history and are still used today.
There have been many prosperous civilizations throughout the history of the world. Many of them became very large, and lasted for a countless number of years. The most successful and large scale civilization, however, was that of Ancient Egypt. Although it lies in the middle of the largest desert in the world, egyptians were able to use their intelligence to utilize the Nile River and cultivate the surrounding land for farming. They came up with very unique conceptual ideas that benefitted them greatly, and discovered many new things that would impact society around the world to this day. For all of these reasons and many more, Ancient Egypt was the most advanced civilization of its time.
In this essay, the author
Explains that ancient egypt was the most successful and large scale civilization of its time. the egyptians used their intelligence to utilize the nile river and cultivate the surrounding land for farming.
Explains that egypt relied on agriculture to drive it toward prosperity. the sahara desert lacks fertile soil and the nile river provides irrigation ditches and canals.
Explains that ancient egyptians created many concepts that drove them toward success, such as arithmetic, hieroglyphics, and the world's first national government.
Opines that ancient egypt was one of the most prosperous civilizations in the history of this world.
Archeologists define civilization as the social system whose members shares the some culture have an economical sources, government, traditions, geographical location. Both civilizations that I'm going to compare in this research are very old. Both civilizations share same similarities and in the same time they differ to each other. Same as Mesopotamia the ancient Egyptian civilization was very old. But, Mesopotamia was older than the ancient Egyptian civilization. Mesopotamia started about 10,000 B.C yet the ancient Egypt started 3,050 B.C. Babil city the greatest civilization of Uruk started 3000 B.C yet the Nile civilization the main civilization in the ancient Egypt started 2920 B.C. (Look at the figure NO#1). We can see that the both old civilization are near river (fresh water source), while U.A.E. are surrounded by salt water sources and deserts far away from ...
In this essay, the author
Explains that life on the earth started long ago. the planet was just a piece of rocks without any life forms. ancient people learned that living in groups better than living alone.
Compares mesopotamia and the ancient egyptian civilizations. both are very old and share similar similarities.
Explains that the babylon myth of the babil city said that once in the country of high walls uruk there was a tower reaches the top of heavens.
Compares babil tower and giza pyramid as ancient constrictions, while khalifa tower was built in 2500 b.c.
Explains that khalifa tower rose about 2684 ft in the sky.
Explains that the ancient mesopotamians built the babylon tower from very basic materials that can be found anywhere.
Explains that the ancient mesopotamians destroyed the babil tower before they could complete it. the sumerian language is older than the hieroglyphic language in egypt.
Explains the origin meaning of the word "babil" in ancient languages is "the gate of goddess", but if we search in the original languages about its meaning we will find that those words are either chaos or talking without meaning.