The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.) was a conflict between the Athenian Empire and the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta that resulted in the end of the Golden Age of Athens. The events of the war were catalogued by the ancient historian Thucydides in The History of the Peloponnesian War. Thucydides’ writings showed the ancient Greek belief that there is a parallel between the city-state and the character of its citizens; in order for the city-state to be successful, its citizens must be virtuous. Thucydides did not believe that the true cause of the Peloponnesian War were the immediate policies of the Athenian Empire against the city-states in the Peloponnesian League but rather the fundamental differences in the character of the two city-states
Throughout the Ancient Greek world, there have been many wars and standoffs. However, the Peloponnesian War was the only one which changed the course of Greek history forever. Caused by the growing tension between Athens and Sparta, it came and left, leaving only destruction in its path. The defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War caused the downfall of Greece, and the end of the Classical Age.
Old Greece in 431 BC was not a country. It was a vast accumulation of opponent city-states placed on the Greek territory, on the west shoreline of Asia Minor, and on the numerous islands of the Aegean Sea. The greater part of the city states had gotten to be unified with one or the other of the main military forces which were Athens and Sparta. Athens was an extraordinary maritime force, while Sparta depended principally on its armed force for predominance. In 431 BC these collusions went to war against one another in a clash called the Peloponnesian War. The war, which continued for a long time, is named for the Peloponnesus, the promontory on which Sparta is placed.
Sparta was dominant in the Peloponnesus. A lot of things led up to their dominance some of which include Causes of the War, The advances in warfare, and Sparta’s other invasions and sieges. All of these together show the wits and strength of Sparta.
The Peloponnesian War consisted of two equal but different powers in control of Greece, Athens and Sparta. Athens and Sparta were in 480 BC when they both received an independent state of living from the Persians. The Athenians had a phenomenal navy as well as being heavy into commerce and trade by using the waterways. The Spartans lead gracefully in the agriculture community which boosted them as well as having a stupendous army. As you can tell, both powers are complete opposites, which made them bot...
The need to keep a balance of power is the main reason of the Peloponnesian War. Thucydides attains that Sparta’s fear of Athenian rule provided an unavoidable path to war. Athens controlled about half of the city-states; dominated much of the trade; and maintained a strong navy. Sparta kept a strong army and retained equal allies but was primarily an agriculture state. Athens’ ability to maneuver on the sea provided opportunities to expand her power, and this alarmed Sparta. Since Sparta is concerned by Athens’ growing power, Sparta waits for a way to be able to stop the expansion. When an opportunity comes for war against Athens, Sparta is not very reluctant and could even be considered eager to enter an altercation.
The Peloponnesian War is the conflict between the pelopoponesians league led by Sparta and the Delian league, led by Athens. Much of our knowledge on the causes and events of the Peloponnesian War, depends on the Athenian Thucydides 460-400 BC, writer of the History of the Peloponessian War. He servd as an Athenian commander in Northern Greece during the early years of the war until the assembly exiled him as he lost an outpost to the enemy. During this exile, he was able to interview witnesses on both sides of the conflicted. Unlike Heredotus he concentrated on contemporary history and presented his account of the war in an annalistic framework that only occasionally diverts from chronological order. In his account, he discuses the precursors to the war, including the 30 years truce and revolutions, such as the stasis in Corcyra. When looking at wars, the primary focus is normally the fighting itself, such as what we see for World War II. However, it is important to look at the anatomy of war, meaning what effect the war has on the people who are experiencing it first hand, and the consquences that the conflict has on the rest of the world. Therefore in this essay I shall discuss, drawing directly from Thucydides, The History of the Peloponnesian War, how the civilians reacted to the war, their involvement and socio economic factors. Furthermore, the first section of my essay shall focus on the direct effect of war on the people, regarding the plague, and violence and hopelessness that was experienced. Then I shall go on to discuss more general effects of the war and how it affected the Greek world, discussing the social and economic losses that occurred such as the cost of the war in attica, the coup d’etat that occurred in gove...
Thucydides was an Athenian general who was exiled for 20 years, during which time he wrote about what happened during the first 20 years of the Peloponnesian War. Athens and Sparta were both extremely powerful and both had many strengths, and they both had their own set of allies. The real cause of the war isn’t known, but there are many speculations. The biggest reason being that there was a thirty-year-old truce broken by the Athenians after the conquest of Euboea. Thucydides tries to argue that the underlying reason to the start of the war was because the Athens’ power was greatly increasing and that Sparta felt threatened by them. There were some allies of Athens that tried to leave their ally league. Both sides, the Athenians and the
Thucydides points out early on that the cause of the Peloponnesian war is due to the overwhelming fear that Sparta has towards Athens’ growth2. In essence, the Spartans did not want their government to become a direct democracy, which would mimic the government in Athens. After news of Athenian expansion breaks out, the Spartans call upon a Corinthian representative to uphold the Greek tradition of cross-examination by other city-states. The first criticism that the Spartans received by the Corinth’s was that they had a fear of losing and thus they are homebodies who were slow to make moves3. The negative side of the Spartan stereotypes appear to be true in the early stages of the war. At first, the Spartans contemplate whether they should go to war or not ...
Throughout the Ancient Greek world, there have been many wars and standoffs. However, there has been only one which changed the course of Greek history forever; the Peloponnesian War. Caused by the growing tension between Athens and Sparta, it came and left, leaving only destruction in its wake. The defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War caused the downfall of Greece, and the end of the Classical Age.