Law and Literature, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Spring, 2004), pp. 33-63. JSTOR. 2 November 2008.
Very little work has focused on studying recidivism by offenders after punishment and how prevention measures may improve recidivism rates and affect cooperation. “National recidivism rates are at an estimated amount of 73% and of the whole jail population 42.5% are women” (Berenji, 2014, p.131). As you can see about half of the inhabitants of the jails are women; so recidivism is an ongoing issue that needs to be solved. Recidivism is a growing distress in the U.S today, not only with men but women as well. Not many studies have been steered towards women reverting back to crime as there are men, but it is a concern. It is impossible to make this issue disappear fully, but with fundamental changes the statistics can drop. By facing this apprehension head on and analyzing all aspects such as the problem itself, causes, effects and the solutions will not only give a better understanding, but an idea of how to potentially diminish this issue.
In the last four decades, the number of incarcerated Americans has increased 700 percent to 2.3 million in 2010 (McGarry et al., 2013). The incarceration rates are also high and increasing in several other countries, including Australia, the United Kingdom and Germany. The number of repeat offenders are a large proportion of the prisoners. For example, it is indicated by Mastrobuoni & Terlizzese (2014) that nearly 40 percent of released offenders are re-incarcerated within three years in the United States. Thus, if countries could balance the implement of incarceration and rehabilitation to reduce recidivism, it will bring enormous societal benefits and the decrease in imprisonment rates. In the essay, I will discuss the effectiveness of
Incarceration has become the most dominant form of punishment. Not only is incarceration not a deterrent, it may actually cause offenders to commit additional crimes. A Department of Justice study revealed that an overwhelming percent of prisoners were again arrested for felonies or serious misdemeanors within three years of their release. Another Department of Justice study discovered that imprisonment actually increases the rate of recidivism among felons. Felons sentenced to imprisonment were matched with felons sentenced to probation, according to characteristics of crime and criminal thought to correlate with recidivism. Seventy-two percent of the prison group was rearrested during the two years following release, compared to only sixty-three percent of the probation group.
... in preventing re-offending. Matarasso (1997) found that incomplete interventions and poorly conceived and facilitated community projects tended to have negative impacts on the people and environments they were supposed to help and support. Similarly, Hollin et al (2008, in Parkes & Bilby, 2010) found that offenders that took part in offending behaviour programs and did not complete them were more likely to reoffend than those who had never started a programme in the first place. Consequently, we can see that there must be support outside of prison that can act as a gateway into society as it can reinforce central relations developed in custody and offer a probationary safety path (Digennaro, 2010). This importance can be partly explained Sampson and Laub (1993) who developed the notion of a bond between an individual and society. The bond is made up of the extent
Someda, K. (2009). An international comparative overview on the rehabilitation of offenders and effective measures for the prevention of recidivism. Legal Medicine, 11, S82–S85. doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2009.01.064
Drago, F., Galbiati, R. & Vertova, P. (2011). Prison conditions and recidivism. American law and economics review, 13 (1), pp. 103--130.
However, research has shown that incarceration does more harm than good as it not only is an ineffective way to curb crime, but it also may contribute to more crime occurring (Currie, 2013). This is evidenced by a study that was conducted in Kansas City, Missouri in 2002 by researchers Cassia Spohn and David Holleran. In this study, the researchers followed the lives of felony offenders who were sentenced in 1993. Their goal was to see how offenders fared in a custodial vs. a noncustodial setting. They found that offenders who were sentenced to prison, were twice as likely to be incarcerated for a new crime (Currie, 2013). In fact, they were “five to six times more likely to be rearrested and recharged with a new crime than all other offenders of any kind” (Currie, 2013, p. 201). A similar result has been found with juvenile offenders as indicated by a recent New York Times