New York: Picador. 3. Flanagan, M., and Booth, A. (eds.) (2002) Reload: Rethinking Women + Cyberculture.
“Women in Engineering: Gender, Power and Workplace Culture.” Contemporary Sociology - A Journal of Reviews. Vol. 21, 5: 573-576. Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A; Nawyn, Stephanie J. 1998.
“Women’s struggle for employment equality began long before the feminist movement of the 1970s, especially for those of minority and working-class backgrounds” (Ortiz & Roscigo, 2009, p. 336). This quote is important because it emphasizes that women have faced inequality for a long time in the workplace. Presently, women still face inequity in workplace that has become a barrier to obtaining a higher potential. Women experience discrimination in their workplace by their class and race in which has become normalized by society. Women with lower working status jobs face discrimination more than middle and higher class women.
The literature review for this study examines various researches imperative to understanding the context, nature, and extent of the problem of underrepresentation of women in academic leadership in the United States. Gender inequality still exists in leadership positions in U.S academia; “women are still struggling to be at the leadership table despite the progress the U.S. has made in recent times through the process of eliminating discrimination in the workplace” (Lapovsky & Slaner, 2009). The review also pulls resources from literatures dealing with assessing the root causes of underrepresentation of female Leaders in the United States, with regards to employment discrimination, societal roles etc. From this review, some notable topics emerged that pulls an in depth analysis of the various factors that influence the underrepresentation of women as leaders in the United States academia. Consequently, research has shown that the number of female presidents have not changed in the last 10 years (Lapovsky & Slaner, 2009).
It i... ... middle of paper ... ... she wants to alter so that women’s perspectives and experiences are viewed in the same forefront. Works Cited Calhoun, Craig. 1995, Rethinking Critical Theory, in Calhoun, Craig, Critical Social Theory: Culture, History, and the Challenge of Difference, Blackwell, Cambridge, Mass., 1-42. Smith, Dorothy. 1990, Women’s Experience as a Radical Critique of Sociology, Sociological Inquiry, 44 (1): 7-13.
Introduction Gender inequality in the work place, despite many measures to enhance the position of women such as enforcing quota, still persists. This prevents women from fully assessing their rights as enshrined in inter alia the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights 1976). This inequality is clearly visible in the top positions held by women; in America, for instance, only 14.6% of the executive officer positions in the Fortune 500 were held by women (Catalyst 2013). Mark D. Agars argues that gender discrimination and stereotypes underlie these differences, and that women especially face these biases as they climb the ladder (Agars 2004). He mentions that these stereotypes effectively maintain the glass ceiling, a term used to describe the disadvantage women face if they want to climb up in the hierarchical order of a business (Zeng 2011).
As the times change, so do the standards. Women previously have been looked at as homemakers, housewives, subordinates. In this new century, this has changed dramatically. Not only have women sought extensive amounts of education, they have sought means to expand and solidify their skills. Although women continue to face discrimination, the qualifications of the playing field have leveled out.
One of the most significant sociological changes in the nation's history began in the last decade of the nineteenth century and the ramifications are still being felt today. This change consisted of the large numbers of women who entered the work force. This dramatic change in American society was accompanied by a great deal of controversy and prejudice directed towards women. It was predicted that female employment would bring about the downfall of society and the change of the American family. While a large portion of the public was appalled by the thought of independent young working women, they were also fascinated.
This is an issue that affects all professional women and urgently needs to be addressed. It is important to move beyond professional struc... ... middle of paper ... ...ing sexism in academia. Works Cited Ginther, Donna K., and Shulamit Kahn. "Women in Economics: Moving Up Or Falling Off the Academic Career Ladder?" The Journal of Economic Perspectives 18.3 (2004): 193-214.
Family responsibilities, stereotypes that have led to gender discrimination, are perhaps the most notable factors. Despite this negativity women can still perform exceptionally well as senior managers; especially if effective work/life balance initiatives are undertaken. Family Responsibilities Family responsibilities-such as childbearing, rearing and other common household duties which have traditionally been place on women- play are major role in hindering their career progress. These responsibilities reduce the competitiveness of women by adding to them other unpaid responsibilities that men usually do not face (Writh 2001; Adler & Izraeli 1994). This has had profound effect on the ability of women to pursue their career ambitions.