Aristotle asserts that only those who are concerned with virtue and good government should be the leaders in a society or community (Politics, 80). In Book III of Politics Aristotle describes what the role of the majority should be in politics, By means of these considerations, too, one might solve the problem mentioned earlier and also the related one of what the free should have authority over, that is to say, the multitude of the citizens who are not rich and have no claim whatsoever arising from virtue. For it would not be... ... middle of paper ... ...archy and democracy into polity. Through this idea of addressing factions and political interdependence Aristotle outlines the way to a lasting state. In Federalist 10, Madison describes in a similar way that competing factions imposing a system of checks and balances can protect against dominance of a single faction or class.
What he doesn't consider though, is that the majority of the rulers in a democracy are qualified in ways that he doesn't actually acknowledge as legitimate. The leaders of democracies are confident and successful in the roles they play within their own specific societies. I think that Plato is mistaken by only comparing their ruling abilities to the standards in that of a tyranny. He bases most of his ideas only on a society that he knows and doesn't allow for variety or change in his thoughts. Much of his argument is repetitive and unresearched so I believe that without stronger opposition he would ultimately lose the battle in defending an aristocracy over a democracy.
Plato believed that everything had an ideal form, but Aristotle looked into the real world and studied that. Instead of inventing a system of government, Aristotle explored more of practical things that you can realistically put into effect. Aristotle’s main aim was to “consider, not only what form of government is best, but also what is possible and what is easily attainable”. Meaning that he wanted everyone to be able to relate and adapt to his form of power. He wanted people to be servant to his laws because if the law were an order, it would make a good society.
All citizens, who are equal, take turns at ruling for another’s advantage, creating a balance in power of society. Aristotle claims his constitutional theory where “constitutions which aim at the common advantage are correct and just without qualification, whereas those which aim only at the advantage of the rulers are deviant and unjust, because they involve despotic rule which is inappropriate for a community of free persons” (III.1.1279a17–21). Aristotle describes six constitutional forms: kingship, tyranny, aristocracy, oligarchy, polity, and democracy; however he claims that oligarchy and democracy are the best forms of government. In contrast, in Aristotle 's first-best constitution, every citizen will have moral property to take care, having the social responsibility, in order to attain success and satisfaction (VII.13.1332a32–8). Citizens will be able to have official positions in the public arena and own property because “one should call the city-state happy not by looking at a part of it but at all the citizens” (VII.9.1329a22–3).
Balance is a main word in discussing Aristotle because he believes it is the necessary element to creating a stable government. His less metaphysical approach to politics makes Aristotle more in tune with the modern world, yet he is far from modern. Plato's concept of what politics and government should be is a direct result of his belief in the theory of forms. The theory of forms basically states that there is a higher "form" for everything that exists in the world. Each material thing is simply a representation of the real thing which is the form.
The reason unity and harmony are so important to Plato are because they are responsible for bonding together Plato’s ideal state and protecting it from tyranny. Plato explains at great length the framework which ties together the individual soul with the ideal political society. Without unity and harmony, an aristocracy would ultimately decay into a democracy, and according to Plato, sooner rather than later a tyrant would rule the state. In order to understand how unity and harmony tie the ideal state together, one must first understand the coloration of unity with justice. Simply defined justice, according to Plato, is specialization.
If there was no form of sovereignty the guardians, who are the upper class citizens, would go after all their wants and desires freely. This would cause pandemonium and violence within the state. Plato states that, “a city whose future rulers are least eager to rule will necessarily be the best governed and freest from strife, and the one with opposite rulers the worst” (520d). By this Plato means that the people who should keep the social classes in check and rule over the state should be people who are not interested in power, ruling over others, self-gain, or self-promotion. Plato says, "to become a good guardian, a man must be by nature fast, strong, and a spirited philosopher" (Plato 376e).
Aristotle on Politics The central concern of theorists is to establish a form of constitution that a society will likely succeed. Political success according to Aristotle is determined by the happiness of the citizens of the society. Aristotle’s vision of a perfect government all begins with the character of the citizenry leading to the happiness of a whole state. Through his studies, Aristotle came to the conclusion that in order to achieve a perfect constitution it is essential to break down a society into parts and observe each individually. Aristotle’s teachings were stressed on moderation in government and in life.
Both Plato’s Republic and Aristotle’s Politics relegate some people to exist solely as laborers, but they come to this conclusion in different ways and for fundamentally different reasons. In the Republic, the protagonist Socrates explores the idea of justice and the question of whether or not justice manifests in the same form for the individual as for the state. Socrates believes that these qualities are wholly entwined, as both the justice of the state and the justice of the individual require a balance and embodiment of certain qualities. A good society will be “wise, courageous, [and] moderate,” and all of these qualities must exist independently (Plato 427e). In his construction of an ideal city, Socrates declares that each of these
Aristotle saw politics as the study of association and constitution. He believed in moderation and a key to a happy life and a happy society is balance. Plato as a political philosopher tries to create what he thinks is a perfect society for philosophers and philosophers only. Aristotle as a political scientist sees it more on the