Analysis Of Tokudome

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Tokudome’s second issue with the critical period stems from if there is a biological explanation to the theory, then it should hold under all but the most unusual of circumstances. In short, if the CP exists, then later learners should physically and neurologically be unable to reach native-like proficiency (Tokudome 23). This is expressed by CPH proponents such as Long who have stated that a native-like accent is impossible without first exposure occurring before age twelve or perhaps age six. They believe native-like pronunciation and native-like grammar are out of reach beyond the critical period (qtd. in Tokudome 23). In David Robson’s article “Old Schooled,” he also contends that a critical period, if it exists, should run across the board. He cites the numerous examples where adults have learned new skills to a high level to…show more content…
Snow and Hoefnagel-Hohle studied newcomers to the Netherlands in the 1970s and tested them on their progress in mastering the Dutch language three times in one year. This study tested subjects on many skill components of oral language -- pronunciation, morphology, syntax, vocabulary, syntactic judgments, comprehension, and fluency. They looked at learners who were learning Dutch simply at school or work, without formal intensive instruction, in an effort to mimic how kids generally learn their first language. The children in the study were exposed to Dutch more in school and play then the adults (30 hours a week on average). The adult men were working but used English mostly for work. The women were generally only exposed to Dutch in the community and social contexts. The adults were attending classes but no more than 26 hours of total class time over the year. This difference in language exposure addresses the issue that if exposure is critical, we would assume that the adults would learn more slowly than the younger groups (Snow and Hoefnagel-Hohle

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