Analysis Of The Positive And Negative Affect Schedule

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The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a 20-item self-report measure with 10-item positive and negative affect subscales developed in 1988 by Watson, Clark, and Tellegen. The PANAS works to provide independent measures of both positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). The PANAS is used very much, with different versions of the test developed to be longer, shorter, and for children.
In this test, positive affect reflects the extent to which a person feels enthusiastic, active and alert so high positive affect would be a state of pleasurable engagement, high energy, and full concentration. Conversely, low positive affect is a state of sadness and lethargy. Negative affect is not just the opposite of positive affect. It is a general dimension of subjective distress and unpleasurable engagement. High negative affect includes anger, contempt, disgust, guilt, fear, and nervousness. Low negative affect is a state of calmness and serenity.
The relationship of these affects is still a controversial topic, as to whether they are correlated or not. It has also been argued that both should be renamed, changing from positive affect and negative affect to positive activation and negative activation. This is because positive affect and negative affect are defined by the activation of the emotional affects and the lower levels of both are characterized by the absence of them. Presently, these labels can be interchanged in research.
The PANAS has proved to be effective at differentiating between depression and anxiety, even though it has shown that using self-report measures may make it difficult to discriminate between the two constructs. One suggestion of why it is that way is due to most existing self-report scales for both...

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...r the lack thereof and the NA scale contains terms related to negativity. This grouping makes sense to have the terms paired the way the PANAS does.
The construct validity of the PANAS was questioned due to the selection of items for the subscales to show that each was independent. The items, however, may not adequately represent their supposed constructs. Watson and Clark stated that fear is not related to NA but “scared” and “afraid” are both included in the negative affect scale. This argues that the construct validity of the test is low because it may not test what it is meant to test by adding unrelated items.
If the PANAS added either more terms or more questions, without repetition, there is little doubt that both reliability and validity could increase. Each construct could include two questions to reduce random response errors or gather more information.
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