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Analysis Of The Hallmarks Of Cancer

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Introduction
The Hallmarks of Cancer written by Doughlas Hanahan and Robert A. Weinberg proposed the underlying principles and the essential characteristics of the development of human tumors. This article distilled all the existing research to depict the fundamental characteristics of cancer. Hanahan and Weinberge proposed six hallmarks shared among all cancers mentioned in this article includes supporting proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressor, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, sustaining angiogenesis, and tissue invasion and metastasis. Four emerging hallmarks are also introduced in this article, depicting the current 10 underlying principles shared by cancerous cells. Hanahan and Weinberg also provided specific examples of potential mechanisms for the hallmarks. All of the mechanisms of hallmarks of cancer must be fulfilled in the development of cancerous cells.
Six Fundamental Hallmarks of Cancer
Cancer cells have a special characteristic to sustain chronic proliferative signaling to enable uncontrollable growth. These cells enable growth factors to bind cell-surface receptors containing tyrosine kinase domains. These growth factors regulate progression to emit intracellular signals, allowing cells to progress through the cell cycle as well as cell growth. Cancerous cells use several methods to acquire the capability to sustain proliferative signaling including the production of growth factor ligand, resulting in autocrine proliferative stimulation. Another method used by cancerous cells is sending signals to stimulate normal cells within the supporting tumor-associated stroma to supply the cancer cells with the necessary growth factors. Cancer cells also showed higher levels of receptor p...

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...ks of cancer depicted in this article together dictate the malignant phenotype of cancer. These hallmarks of cancer are fundamental for cancer research, showing the remarkable similarity in the pathologic traits that are ultimate in tumor formation and progression. The original hallmarks include self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to anti-growth signals, tissue invasion and metastasis; limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesisand evasion of apoptosis in which cells must accumulate in order to become cancerous. Emerging hallmarks such as reprogramming of energy metabolism and evasion of the immune system have shown essential characteristics contributing to cancer cell progression, however, they have yet to be integrated into the canonical six hallmarks since whether or not they are pervasive in call types of cancers is still undetermined.
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