Tales of Angola: Free Blacks, Red Stick Creeks, and International Intrigue in Spanish Southwest Florida was a powerful essay written by Cantor Brown Jr. This essay displayed the significant increase of the slave resistance in the state of Florida, in the nineteenth century. Throughout Tales of Angola Brown, came off to his readers with a strong argument regarding the many different characteristics being exhibited of slave resistance in the state of Florida. Even though some may not agree but his argument got through to millions. Angola is a country in southwestern Africa. It was thought that Bantu speaking people from West Africa were the first of many people to arrive to this area, but in actuality the original people to arrive were the Khosian speakers, but since the Bantu people were so powerful they began to displace many of the other kingdoms. The significance of importance of the black communities was more than just the Negro Fort and the Fort Mose. (page.5) After awhile there was a link between Bahamian exiles through these communities. (page.6) Brown’s argument was that the Indian Removal Act, the racial collaborations between Red Sticks and African, and the legacies of resistance in the writing of African American history, all helped in the slave resistance in Florida.
The Indian Removal Act was put into effect by President Andrew Jackson in the 1830s. This act was put into place to help Mississippi grant unsettled land west of them. With this act taking place it would have the state of Mississippi exchanging Indian lands within existing state boards. This act was approved only by a slim margin. The president starting removing the Creeks and the Maroons from Florida. (page.15) You would think since an act was signed off...
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...y are a part of history. Now in today’s time we see it as African American history left through writing. (pages.14-16)
To conclude, the nineteenth century represented a significant increase in slave resistance in Florida. It was a powerful movement through this time. As noted early the Indian Removal Act, racial collaborations between the Red Sticks and Africans, and the legacies of writing of the African American history all led up to the increase in the slave resistance. This time was a troublesome time to all that was involved. The events that took place during this time are significant events that would never be forgotten. Without these struggles people wouldn’t have the freedom that they do today. To know what has taken place back in history makes one appreciate life that much more. Without these significant events who knows how life would be in today’s time.
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The Cherokee Trail of Tears resulted from the execution of the Treaty of New Echota (1835), an “agreement” signed under the Indian Removal Act of 1830 (The Cherokee and the Trail of Tears). With the expansion of the American population, the discovery of gold in Georgia, and the need for even more land for American results in the push to move the Natives who were “in the way”. So with the Indian Removal Act of 1830, Congress acted to remove Natives on the east coast of the United States to land west of the Mississippi River, something in which was never embraced or approved by them (The Cherokee and the Trail of Tears). Many state governments, such as Georgia, did not want Native-owned land within their boundaries, while the Natives did not want to move. However, under the Removal Act, the United States Congress gave then-President Andrew Jackson the authority to negotiate removal treaties.
Andrew Jackson, who was the 7th President of the United States, signed the Indian Removal Act in May 28th, 1832 and this policy granted Andrew Jackson the right to forcibly move the Native Americans to land west of the Mississippi. Even though “it is presumed that any explanation of Jackson’s purposes is an attempt to justify the mass killing of innocent people…” (Remini, 45) some would say his childhood affected him; seeing and hearing Indians Attacking places near his home. Or how he was the second President to make it into the business without an education. Some people thought that with gold being found in Georgia, this led many new white settlers looking to buy land from the Cherokee Indians. Although a lot could be said about Andrew Jackson’s Removal Policy one thing is for certain, the way the Policy was carried out was a horror. If you could just imagine this with your heart and soul how the policy was carried out, then you could see how terribly the Indians were treated. All because they occupied the land they were given in a treaty. The policy affected many people, some in good ways; some in bad. Obviously the only people this policy affected in a good way were the white settlers looking to buy the Indians land. The Chickasaw Indians were the only Tribe to not have land in the New Territory even though they were promised it. They sold their land for $500,000 to the United States Government, and when they showed up and had no land they decided to lease land from Choctaws. The purchase of the land from the other tribe created a trust fund that gave the Chickasaw Indians up to $75,000 a year, and then enabled them to have a cash economy and not rely on the natural environment (Kidwell). The unfortunate situation in this enti...
Whites thought Indians were savages or odd people and they had all the lands. Georgia wanted the federal government to give land to the Cherokee in the Appalachian Mountain and the government approved Georgia’s request. In 1817 6,000 Cherokee were convinced by Jackson to move voluntarily to the Arkansas Territory, but most of them refused. When Jackson was elected as a President, he was committed to move the Cherokee by force. After that, congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830 and the other Indians tribes went, but the Cherokee planned to stay and fight back politically and legally.
During the 18th and 19th century slavery became a thriving concept in the United States, especially in the south due to the rapid expansion of the cotton industry. Many stories told through the grapevines that have all impacted those who listen to the trials and tribulations these slaves took on during this time in the United States. However there are certain individuals who have the ability to give you a perspective of slavery that some could not achieve. Frederick Douglass, a well knowledgeable freed African American gives the insight to slavery in his own narrative. In the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, Frederick reveals the truths behind slaves’ lives, the culture of slavery, as well as the psychological struggles these American slaves endured during this time period.
In 1838 and 1839, the Removal Policy took effect in the state of Georgia. The Removal Policy required the Cherokee Indians to emigrate from their Southeast homeland to the Indian Territory, which is now Oklahoma. They moved to new lands west of Mississippi because those lands were unexplored and deemed unsuitable for European settlement. For Europeans, Oklahoma was the perfect place to move the Native Americans. Obviously, there were reasons behind Europeans’ decisions. Europeans desired more land for their growing population. Another reason is the discovery of gold in northern Georgia. Europeans sought to take advantage of all the resources Georgia had. Also, during this period, Andrew Jackson was elected as the president. Andrew Jackson helped
the removal acts were not only unjust but it should constitute as genocide. It’s no secret that in the early 1830s the natives of America weren’t exactly welcomed by most although over time most did their best to adapt to the European American cultures around them and often converted to Christianity, people began to open up a bit more so much so that when Jackson did present the Indian removal act there was push back “thousands of northern white women signed a petition arguing that the Cherokee should not be removed from their land”(vander velede, section 11, slide vocab) and as if his people protesting wasn’t enough he also received push back from the supreme court. “After the Indian removal act only narrowly passed congress, an 1832 supreme court ruling declared it unconstitutional.”( keenan, 2 ) These people had just as much right to be on their land as anyone else it is a part of what America stood for and still stands for
The Indian Removal Act was passed by Congress in order to allow the growth of the United States to continue without the interference of the Native Americans. Jackson believed that the Native Americans were inferior to white settlers and wanted to force them west of the Mississippi. He believed that the United States would not expand past that boundary, so the Native Americans could govern themselves. Jackson evicted thousands of Native Americans from their homes in Georgia and the Carolinas and even disregarded the Supreme Court’s authority and initiated his plan of forcing the Natives’ on the trail of tears. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Indians, however Jackson ignored the ruling and continued with his plan. The result of the Indian Removal Act was that many tribes were tricked or forced off their lands, if they refused to go willingly, resulting in many deaths from skirmishes with soldiers as well as from starvation and disease. The Cherokee in particular were forced to undergo a forced march that became known as the Trail of
Throughout Jackson's two terms as President, Jackson used his power unjustly. As a man from the Frontier State of Tennessee and a leader in the Indian wars, Jackson loathed the Native Americans. Keeping with consistency, Jackson found a way to use his power incorrectly to eliminate the Native Americans. In May 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed into law the Indian Removal Act. This act required all tribes east of the Mississippi River to leave their lands and travel to reservations in the Oklahoma Territory on the Great Plains. This was done because of the pressure of white settlers who wanted to take over the lands on which the Indians had lived. The white settlers were already emigrating to the Union, or America. The East Coast was burdened with new settlers and becoming vastly populated. President Andrew Jackson and the government had to find a way to move people to the West to make room. In 1830, a new state law said that the Cherokees would be under the jurisdiction of state rather than federal law. This meant that the Indians now had little, if any, protection against the white settlers that desired their land. However, when the Cherokees brought their case to the Supreme Court, they were told that they could not sue on the basis that they were not a foreign nation. In 1832, though, on appeal, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Cherokees were a "domestic dependent nation," and therefore, eligible to receive federal protection against the state. However, Jackson essentially overruled the decision. By this, Jackson implied that he had more power than anyone else did and he could enforce the bill himself. This is yet another way in which Jackson abused his presidential power in order to produce a favorable result that complied with his own beliefs. The Indian Removal Act forced all Indians tribes be moved west of the Mississippi River. The Choctaw was the first tribe to leave from the southeast.
In May 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act which forced Native American tribes to move west. Some Indians left swiftly, while others were forced to to leave by the United States Army. Some were even taken away in chains. Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States, strongly reinforced this act. In the Second State of the Union Address, Jackson advocated his Indian Policy. There was controversy as to whether the removal of the Native Americans was justified under the administration of President Andrew Jackson. In my personal opinion, as a Native American, the removal of the tribes was not in any way justified.
Initiated by the colonist’s want to further expand their colonies, their land, and their prosperity, many colonists voiced their want for Indian removal. After many proposals by various American leaders, and crucially Thomas Jefferson’s push (Garrison 13), Andrew Jackson’s presidency would be what finalized and enforced the Indian Removal Act. Jackson claimed he had listened to the people, and that his rationale for the removal was in favor of the Indian and
Although there are many theories as to why President Andrew Jackson did what he did, the goal of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 was concrete. "His congressional charge was to move them all west of the Mississippi to open up the trans-Appalachian southeast for a flood of settlers who had been spilling over that chain of mountains from the earliest days of the republic." As a result, the "monumental legislation spelled the doom of the American Indian," and the bliss of the white citizens and the states in which they resided.
Jackson had to remove the Indians to areas west of the Mississippi River. There was five Indian Nations affected with this removal; the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles. “Congress acted on Jackson’s recommendations in the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The act appropriated $500,000 for the negotiation of new treaties under which Indians would surrender their territory and be removed to land in the trans-Mississippi area.” (Goldberg, ed., The American Journey, 10.2.2). Some Indians didn’t make it through the removal and that was called Trails of Tears to remember the Cherokees.
The Indian removal act pushed the Indians out of American land. Pushing Native American’s out of our land made us look stronger. Taking the land also gave us more room to populate, and more land to grow crops. This made us more money. If We did not move the Native Americans, we would not have as much population and crops, which would make us poor, and if we were poor, Natives could attack us, and take our land. The loss of land would hurt America, and we could no longer have America.
In From Slavery to Freedom (2007), it was said that “the transition from slavery to freedom represents one of the major themes in the history of African Diaspora in the Americas” (para. 1). African American history plays an important role in American history not only because the Civil Rights Movement, but because of the strength and courage of Afro-Americans struggling to live a good life in America. Afro-Americans have been present in this country since the early 1600’s, and have been making history since. We as Americans have studied American history all throughout school, and took one Month out of the year to studied African American history. Of course we learn some things about the important people and events in African American history, but some of the most important things remain untold which will take more than a month to learn about.