(Wade, 2007) state that this is reflected in many modern states recognising both types of claims to citizenship. While in some countries the two concepts citizenship are still challenging to reconcile. In addiction most countries today include of dissimilar ethnic groups. Rather, countries struggle for diversity, where individuals of all ethnicities and races remain separate but have social likeness. As an example by looking at global inequalities we can see that United States is... ... middle of paper ... ...as cultural racism ‘rather than racism (Modood, 1997, p155).
I will base information from Webster’s definition of Racism, reading assigned for the course, and some of my own ideas on ways to overcome this obstacle as a nation. Racism has historically been defined as the belief that race is the primary determinant of human capacities, that a certain race is inherently superior or inferior to others, and/or that individuals should be treated differently according to their racial designation. Sometimes racism means beliefs, practices, and institutions that discriminate against people based on their perceived or ascribed race. While the sin of racism is an age-old phenomenon based on ignorance, fear, estrangement, and false pride, some of its ugliest manifestations have taken place in our time. Racism and irrational prejudices operate in a vicious circle.
Some sociological reason that gender, race and age discrimination will occur in America society is because of prejudice, racial stereotyping and racism. When thinking about discrimination the first thing that would come to a person’s mind is segregation. Discrimination is treatment or consideration of making distinction in favor of or against, a person, group or class. When gender is a part of discrimination it deals with the male or female humans not being good enough for something. Discriminating a person’s race deals with the person ethnicity, to judge because of your skin color can be very degrading to a person.
Racism itself can be said to be “false linkage between biology and sociocultural behavior to assert the superiority of one race” (ETHN-100 Glossary, UNL,). There are two types of racism individual and also institutional. Xenophobia also according to the ETHN-100 glossary is said to be the “irrational fear of or contempt for strangers or foreigners”. In my interpretation into my own words I would say that racism are beliefs and judgments made based on the society’s standards that lead one to discriminate, and one group either directly or through the use of institutions. I would also say xenophobia to be the using one’s culture by way of ignorance to belittle another’s culture, and ideologies according them inferior.
The rejection of foreign physical attributes has developed stereotypes that target determined racial groups and associates negatives characteristics with their physiognomy. Racial stereotyping enforces physical stigmas
The second type, institutionalized racism, stems from the in-group. When a majority feels superior or uses acts rejection towards the minority the racist remarks are considered institutionalized. Often both forms of racism occur in the community. Unfortunately, several social and cultural factors reinforce these negative treatments of other and several actions must be taken to address these issues. My world, for example, includes many different cultures sharing one community.
Even though women make up the majority of people in a number, women are still considered a minority and hence will continue their struggle for equal recognition. Ultimately, until a balanced representation is complete the struggle will continue. Any notion that society can change overnight is not realistic. Progress has been made, more in some areas of the world as opposed to others. The world should recognize the power and strength that women have, further, the power and strength they have not abused.
In the media, various levels of discourse may be involved in the emphasis of negative beliefs about immigrants and minorities and thus contributes to the ideologies of racism. Racism is “not biologically inferior, but a means of different culture.” D’Souza (1995). This inequality in power and status between ethnic and cultural groups can be expressed, enacted and confirmed by media discourses such as newspapers. Media discourse is the main source of people’s knowledge and it’s primarily discursive and symbolic. The media tends to “serve to maintain relations of domination.” Devereux (1998:13) Media coverage tends to problematize minorities and a large number of studies, for example Gomes and Williams (1991) confirm this.
What is said to be â€œthe God-given right to equality and ultimate freedomâ€ (Nova; Marshall, Christopher) has been crushed for many, by the uncited ignorance of my â€˜finelyâ€™ educated people. Racists often need someone to blame for the wrong-doings, hatred and stupidity in America. Who better to blame than someone with skin of a different color? Racism is just another form of prejudice. If a person or group of people acts or dresses differently, these people may get distrusted or disowned.
The way each female interprets her experience appears to largely depend on how well she can handle criticism and how determined she is to succeed. A military that is free of gender discrimination seems nowhere in sight, but this is something female service members are well aware of. They cope by stretching gender boundaries to an extent that each can personally find comfort in. This allows them to be seen as strong, powerful leaders in uniform and stereotypical ladies afterhours. As gender egalitarianism becomes more prevalent in society, I believe Americans will gradually become more accepting and understanding of the complex roles female service members work hard to balance.