John K. Roth states, “Aristotle assumes that all things, human beings included, have a good, a purpose or end, which it is their nature to fulfill”. This helps one understand Aristotle’s way of thinking, and provides insight to the basis of his theories. A common theory explored by Aristotle is the Ethics of Virtues, and how to practice them. A theory included in Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics is the unity of all the virtues, and in order to be virtuous, one must exhibit all the virtues. One of these virtues being practical wisdom, or Phronesis.
Every activity aims at some good and is subordinate to some other activity. The good of the ruling activity is more choiceworthy. The highest good will be that for the sake of which we engage in any activity, and that is the topic of ethics. Aristotle then comments on Plato's theory of the good. Plato claimed there was a "universally present" characteristic in al... ... middle of paper ... ...o in that, a degree of goodness can be expected.
In conclusion, classical utilitarianism contrasts from other close views such as The Kantian Perspective of Fairness and Justice. The reason that the Kantian Perspective is contradicting to classical utilitarianism being the perspective is narrowed towards oneself rather than the overall well-being. I support classical utilitarianism in the interest of the greater good; the Kantian perspective, in my opinion, focuses solely on an individual’s welfare alternatively than the community’s welfare. Torture is prevalent in present-day, especially in war, because it is going against the common natural law of morality. Classical utilitarian’s are more open to this idea, considering that it advances our protection and countries well-being.
This is because the excellent soul is governed completely by its rational segment, as opposed to its irrational segment, and such governing is achieved only through the cultivating of virtue, both moral, which is habituated, and intellectual, which is learned, which by definition is excellence of the soul. To cultivate moral virtue, one must practice the mean of all emotions, that is, the version of each emotion that is neither in excess nor deficient, as well as the mean of virtuous characteristics, such as generosity. Happiness is the ultimate function of man because it is the highest human good. Every action that humans perform is aimed at achieving an end. One goes to college to gain a degree.
Whether in relation to action or knowledge, all things aim at some good. In Ethics, the father of political theory, Aristotle, initially establishes that the good is the best, most archicteonic, and choiceworthy end. He subsequently states that both the many and the refined concur that the highest of all goods related to action is happiness, essentially marking happiness as the definitive end. Ultimately, because the good is in relation to what something is, he addresses and elucidates on eleven moral virtues from the irrational part of the soul and five intellectual virtues derived from the rational part of the soul; these virtues are supposed to bring one closer to the good. Seemingly the magnanimousness or great-souledness (one of
For example health would be considered as an intrinsic good since we seek good health for itself. The distinction between instrumental and intrinsic goods enables us to establish a hierarchy of goods and to suppose the existence of a good which would be the highest one. Knowing that there is... ... middle of paper ... ...rts of the soul in order to find the function of human beings which is activity in accordance with reason. It is first in this function that men ought to be virtuous. It is thanks to the same distinction that Aristotle gives the different types of virtues.
When taking these elements to its logical conclusion, one must accept that humans should give equal value for all human beings. This conclude that everyone's interests should be deemed equal when making decisions as this is a fundamental principle of utilitarianism. As both utilitarianism and virtue ethics promote and enclose very different principles and customs. Both theories are constantly admired and criticized. Although virtue ethics was easily the dominant system during the ancient periods, other theories like utilitarianism have been grown in prominence since they were introduced.
The virtuous person must be continent person. Yet the virtuous person in Kantian ethics is defined as goodwill person who act from duty. Kantian ethics defines a universal standard of manner for all beings. Human has to follow the standard and complete duties to achieve the goodness following the standard. Unlike Kantian, Aristotle states that there are many ways for a man to utilize virtue within his life to achieve the highest good.
Aristotle argues that because we’ve found that rational activity is the human being’s function, and that the good for human beings (or any kind) is in performing that kind’s function well. He considers an action to be performed well when it’s performed virtuously. So, Aristotle concludes that the good for humans is when the human function of rational activity is performed
One of Aristotle’s conclusions in the first book of Nicomachean Ethics is that “human good turns out to be the soul’s activity that expresses virtue”(EN 1.7.1098a17). This conclusion can be explicated with Aristotle’s definitions and reasonings concerning good, activity of soul, and excellence through virtue; all with respect to happiness. Aristotle opens his argument with the statement: “the good has been well described as that at which everything aims”(1.1.1094a2). This premise means that all actions aim at an end that is good. Moreover, through this definition of good, there are numerous goods corresponding to numerous actions.