Analysis Of NGO State Relations

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3) Chapter 3 – Setting a theoretical framework 3.1) Introduction of Relevant Work This dissertation will now move on to explore the numerous works and theories that have been given in order to try and conceptualise NGO – State relations; it will go further in attempting to offer a theoretical framework in which we can adopt in order to analyse NGO – state relations in Zimbabwe and the effects that this relationship has upon the promotion human rights and advocacy. Focus on NGOs in academic literature is a relatively recent trend; with the term not gaining much currency in academia until the end of world war II (Götz: 2008: 231) when the world moved into a new era that was heavily focussed on development. Numerous scholars have devoted much of their attention to NGOs and their relationships with governments; setting forth models and theories that NGOs may use in order to maximise their influence as well as academic work surrounding the methods that governments employ when dealing with NGOs. Some of the most prominent scholars that have written upon both NGO and government methods are Moyo (1991), Clark (1992), Bratton (1989: 2007), Thomas (1996), Potter (2003), Fowler (1991), Streeten (1997) and Fisher (1998); all of which shall be discussed throughout this chapter and utilised in order to build up a conceptual framework for analysing NGO – State relations in Zimbabwe. There is a great deal of literature surrounding the study of NGOs, with Zimbabwean NGOs being amongst some of the most studied in Africa (Igoe and Kelshall: 2005: 36). However, throughout the topic of NGO – State relations in Zimbabwe, specifically, the literature is rich and consumed by academic works focussing on environmental NGOs. Environmental development and e... ... middle of paper ... ...en state power or state function (Ndegwa: 1996: 22). After ZANU-PF’s defeat in the 2000 constitution referendum the Zimbabwean government’s hostility towards NGOs, CSOs, church groups and other society based organisations became apparent. Due to the perceived threat of these groups, Mugabe accused them of ‘siding with the Europeans and the British’ and it was made clear to NGOs that they had no place in the political system (Dorman: 2003: 857). There are a number of other instances whereby we can see the direct opposition to the existence of NGOs in Zimbabwe by the government; for example the PVO act (1966) and its subsequent frequent amendments, the drafting of the NGO bill in 2004, the Access to Information and Protection of Privacy Act (2002) and the Public Order and Security Act (2002); all of which will be discussed in further detail in later chapters.
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