Antimicrobial and Antioxidant features of Nutmeg Introduction Hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen, super oxide anion and free radicals consist of reactive oxygen species. These reactive species will cause damage to the biological molecules. The damaged bio molecules might initiate certain diseases or might lead to the worsening of the existing diseases. Free radicals are reactive ions that can cause progression of diseases like diabetes, immunosuppression, metabolic injury, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, aging, and Parkinson’s disease. Diseases that result from the oxidative stress could be prevented by the exogenous antioxidants such as tocopherols, flavonoids, vitamin C, carotenoids and various phenolic compounds.
The crude extract obtained by solvent extraction was subjected to various qualitative tests to detect the presence of common chemical constituents as:
In this experiment, lipids from ground nutmeg are extracted using a combination of solvents and identify the lipids through chromatography. The purpose of using solvent combinations is to elute the lipids based on their polarity to binding of the silica gel. The chromatography is performed on a silica gel plate and the use of iodine to visualize the lipids. By calculating the Rf values for each compound and comparing them to the known lipids, we are able to distinguish the lipids within the grounded nutmeg.
Introduction: The purpose of this experiment was to isolate eugenol or clove oil from cloves using steam distillation and determine whether it is an efficient way to carry out this experiment. Also, TLC and 1H NMR were preformed to analyze the purity of the isolated eugenol.
Spices are natural compounds derived from different parts of a plant which are commonly used as flavoring, aroma and preservatives. The essential oil content and oleoresins present in the spices have given them the flavoring and aroma. In addition, the essential oil can also act as a natural preservative in foods (Ceylan and Fung, 2004).
Extractants:- There are three categories of extractants used in reactive extraction. Carbon-bonded oxygen-bearing extractants (solvation), Phosphorous-bonded oxygen-bearing extractants (solvation) and High molecular weight aliphatic amines and their salts (proton transfer or ion-pairing formation) (Kertes et al., 1986). Since phosphorous and amine extractants have been mainly used in the recovery of carboxylic acids, only these extractant are discussed in the current article. (i) Phosphorous-bonded Oxygen Donor Extractants:- These extractants contain a phosphoryl group that is a stronger Lewis base than carbon bonded oxygen donor extractants. The extractants belonging to this group is more water immiscible and extractable than carbon-bonded oxygen donor extractants. For example, (Fahim et al., 1992) reported that for dilute acids, the distribution coefficients for acetic and propionic acids are high in the reactive extraction by trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in various diluents. However, the extractabilities of th...
The hypothesis stated that when the spinach extract was placed on the polar paper chromatography the pigment would separate into different pigments on the...
The objective of this experiment was to perform extraction. This is a separation and purification technique, based on different solubility of compounds in immiscible solvent mixtures. Extraction is conducted by shaking the solution with the solvent, until two layers are formed. One layer can then be separated from the other. If the separation does not happen in one try, multiple attempts may be needed.
For the VASEME extraction procedure, 5ml milliQ water was into 5ml of the eppendorf tube and known concentration of fipronil and its metabolite was spiked at pH 7.0, and surfactant CTAB (0.2 mM) was added 70µl of CCl4 as the extracting solvent was rapidly injected. Sequentially the sample was kept at 41.5oC for 1min, vortexed for 147.2 sec to thoroughly disperse the sample, centrifuged at 5000rpm for 5min and then the settled CCl4 was cautiously with drawn. The organic layer was dried into nitrogen evaporator, diluted to 500µl with hexane in amber vial and 1µL was injected to GC-ECD. under the mentioned chromatographic condition. The fipronil and its metabolite was quantified with external calibration method.