Analysis Of Leta S. Hollingworth

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Leta S. Hollingworth was an American psychologist who focused most of her research on giftedness, educational psychology, psychology of women, and the variability hypothesis. She conducted numerous studies to reject the variability hypothesis that deemed women destined for mediocrity and did her dissertation on how women were not mentally incapacitated during menstruation (Held, 2010). Hollingworth also wrote six articles on the social factors that contributed to the social status of women. (1) One being “Social Devices for Impelling Women to Bear and Rear Children,” this article focused on the eight social constructs that motivated and pressured women to have and raise children. Of the eight, seven were first proposed by E. A. Ross in his…show more content…
(1) The eight social devices were personal ideals, public opinion, law, belief, education, art, illusions, and bugaboos. There were three popular bugaboos which were first termed by Hollingworth (1916) as false ideas or beliefs held by society that were created by medical men. The first was that if pregnancy was delayed until the age of 30, it was more painful and hard. Thus, prompting women to have babies at an earlier age. The second stated that women who do bear children live longer as opposed to women who don’t. The third stated that a child that was raised alone was more likely to become “selfish, egotistic, and an undesirable citizen” (Hollingworth, 1916). Which propelled women to have more than one child so their child would not become any of those things. (1) These eight social devices had been used as a means to confine women to the roles of child bearer and mother by manipulating them into not aspiring for anything more. When a woman went against her designated role they were considered abnormal, selfish, and were destined to encounter the wrath of God in the hereafter. (2) When this article was first published,…show more content…
There are five types of motives according to the self-determination theory (SDT): intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, introjection, external regulation, and amotivation. These motives run on a continuum with intrinsic motivation being the pursual of one’s own wants and desires, to amotivation being that one has no clear motive. (4) The main point Brenning et al. (2015) make is that there is a link between psychological adjustment whilst pregnant and basic psychological need satisfaction, which contribute to the type of motivation a woman has for getting pregnant. (5) Although, there has been little research on how prenatal psychology has an impact on motivation to have a child. The closest study that has analyzed the relationship between prenatal psychology and motivations, was conducted in Russia in 2016 by Borisenko, Belogay, Morozova, & Ott, which examined reproductive motivations of Russian women. Another similar study was conducted by Kraft, Hatfield-Timajchy, Farr, Jamieson, Harvey, Thorburn, & Beckman (2010), which examined the role motivation to get pregnant plays on contraception use in both men and women. (6) Nevertheless, it can be argued that this study, conducted by Brenning et al. (2015), does not consider the

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