Carla Cesaroni, Steven Downing and Shahid Alvi. 2012. “Bullying Enters the 21st Century? Turning a Critical Eye to Cyber- bullying Research.” Youth Justice 12 (3): 199-211. Accessed March 01, 2016. doi: 10.1177/1473225412459837.
“Bullying Enters the Twenty-first Centaury” is a journal article constructed by three social science professors from the University of Ontario Institute of Technology. The foundation of the text examines the contemporary evolution of juvenile cyber bullying, holding a key emphasise on methodological issues surrounding the study, whilst drawing attention to key criminology theories. The paper arranges that cyber bullying is defined as a ‘psychologically devastating form of social cruelty’ and identifies the problem as being of significant magnitude (Cesaroni, Downing and Alvi 2012, p. 3). Further, the authors associate links between…show more content… Specifically, chapter one contrasts the different varieties of cyber bullying, these ranging from peer to peer confrontations to anti-authority cyber-expression and examines their varied psychological effect. The criminology theories underpinning this deviant behaviour are discussed throughout the following chapter and these are further explained through the use of examples of cyber bullying. The eBook later discusses the controversial motion regarding what classifies and act as bullying or teasing and then goes on to explain management strategies once this has been classified. All of these management plans are underpinned by prevention as the author explains prior action can stop future problems for all involved. Ultimately, this secondary source is effective in defining bullying as unwanted, continuous act inflicted by an online pupil and proclaiming remedies if an act was to occur, due to the relevant and academic sources that form the basis from the