Benjamin S. Bloom, educator, scholar, and researcher is widely known for his contributions to the field of education (“Lasley,” 2016; Eisner, 2000). His research and writings aimed to provide insights on ways to improve the education policy and practice (Gutek, 2001). A major part of Bloom’s contributions consists of the study of educational objectives and mastery learning theory (“Lasley,” 2016). This paper intends to explain the core elements of Bloom’s contributions to the area of education and its implications for teaching and learning practices (Guskey, 2001).
In the early 20th century, Bloom (1913-1999) and a group of educators at the University of Chicago examined the educational problems between instructors and educational goals (Bloom, …show more content…
For example, the framework of Bloom’s taxonomy may assist educators in determining the educational objectives they wish students to acquire (Eisner, 2000). Moreover, it allows educators to guide their students up to the taxonomy while acquiring new knowledge (Eisner, 2000). Additionally, it helps educators and evaluators determine which educational objective they will adopt into the lesson or evaluation (Bloom, 1956). The focus of Bloom’s taxonomy is to assist educators in creating learning experiences that increase the level of thinking skills of each student (Bloom, …show more content…
The mastery learning theory derived from the work of John B. Carroll’s (Guskey, 2001; Bloom, 1968). Carroll’s (1963) proposed a model of school learning in which all students received the same quality of instruction (Guskey, 2001; Bloom, 1968). According to Carroll (1963), the education system should grant the same quality of instruction and appropriate timeframe to all students to ensure their success and mastery of a subject (Bloom, 1968). Carroll (1963) claimed that the assumption of students’ aptitude to learn a specific subject varied upon the learning level of each learner (Guskey, 2011). Consequently, Carroll’s views about students’ aptitude and learning level encouraged Bloom to develop the mastery learning theory (Guskey,
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It is a well-known fact that students entering higher education increasingly lack the academic skills necessary to succeed in their collegiate endeavors. It goes without saying that this is largely due to the widespread substandard education provided by legions of mediocre teachers—teachers who deliver shoddy instruction due to their own innately inferior academic abilities. At least, these facts are what Notre Dame Professor of Philosophy Gary Gutting would have readers of The Chronicle of Higher Education believe in his article “Why College Is Not a Commodity.” Although he makes many points that, if true, would be damning of the elementary and secondary teaching professions, Gutting stops short of proving his arguments logically or empirically. He claims today’s budding K-12 teachers often come from the bottom of the heap academically, directly leading to poor teaching—yet he provides no research to back up this connection. Furthermore, Gutting attempts to provide a solution to this so-called travesty by recommending that teaching be “professionalized,” ignoring the already-present professional practices and standards present. Gutting’s critiques, though thought-provoking, ultimately are logically and statistically unsatisfying in both their explanations of the state of teacher qualifications and in their calls to action.
Rogers, C., Lyon, H., & Tausch, R. (2013). On Becoming an Effective Teacher. New York: Rutledge.
Every year, education majors across the U.S. face a barrage of learning theories and models in their education courses. Professors waste no time in introducing them to Pavlov and his dogs, Bloom’s Taxonomy, Maslow’s Hierarchy, Piaget, Skinner, Gagne, Bruner and more (Marsh, McFadden, and Price, n.d.). From the work of these great men come such learning theories as behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism, three paradigms that have shaped our current educational system. The next generation of teachers creates countless practice lesson plans based around these theories. Unfortunately, there is a wide divide between the psychology of how humans learn and the constraints of an American classroom. The SUCCEED instructional design model attempts to marry prominent learning theory with the realities of the classroom to create a model that is both fundamentally sound and realistic.
...o think for themselves. He believes that students will become more active and informed citizens if they are brought up to think for themselves (155). Gatto’s proposed solutions can be found successfully applied in Mike Rose’s essay. In his essay he describes the mediocre education he received while on the vocational track. Mike’s future was looking rather grim until he came under the instruction of Jack MacFarland. This man was a wise and enthusiastic teacher who challenged students academically. He encouraged and inspired students to read, to be proactive in their classes, and to think for themselves. His classes were engaging and the students were interested in his teachings (165-167). The fact that the same solutions that Gatto proposed in his essay was successful applied elsewhere proves that teaching practices need and can to change for the better.
In this essay, I will explain my educational philosophy—the set of beliefs, principles, and precepts that make up the foundation of my conduct as a teacher. I believe that there are three main purposes of education: (1) developing good citizens, (2) encouraging personal self-growth, and (3) preparing students for success through job preparation and the teaching of life-skills. These three objectives are similar to the thoughts of the noted educator and philosopher Mortimore Adler.
After reading Sir Ken Robinson 's book "Creative Schools The Grassroots Revolution That 's transforming Education" the reader can visualize several examples about how to change the actual educational system. He analyzes the process of education in which we are involved and how this one could be replaced with a creative one, which encourages students to be creative in all spheres and subjects; instead, prepare them for standardized tests. Education should be a process where students learn gradually at their own level. The author defines it as " organized programs of learning … that young people need to know, understand and able to do things that they wouldn 't if left to their own devices" (Robinson, p 17) Also, he suggest and analyze, in base of his experience, how education needs to be transformed in order to benefit students and prepare them for life, instead guide them through the straight line of standardized tests. He pointed the importance of teaching and education itself, and how creativity can be a key factor that makes students engage with the learning process.
The use of the term teacher expectations has been a source of consternation and anger for some educators because of its connection to the concept of self-fulfilling prophecy (Jussim & Harber, 2005). These prophecies are “erroneous teacher expectations [that] may lead students to perform at levels consistent with those expectations (Brophy & Good, 1974; Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968)” (Jussim & Harber, 2005, p. 131).
Marzano, R.J. (2007). The art and science of teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Through exploring multiple learning theories and reflecting on my own teaching beliefs, I have developed my own theory of learning. As I developed my theory, I wanted to consider what it takes to be a highly effective teacher. An effective teacher must have mastery of instructional strategies, classroom management, classroom curriculum design, and use assessments as feedback (Laureate Education, 2010a). By using a variety of instructional strategies, teacher’s can meet the learning styles of all the students in the classroom. Effective classroom management can lead to students feeling safe and more willing to take risks. When a student feels comfortable to take risk, then learning will increase and the students’ confidence will grow. Classroom management also creates order in the environment, which will allow effective learning to occur. By understanding curriculum, the teacher can target skills and causes learning to take place. Teachers need to deliberately plan lessons around standards and specific goals based on curriculum and the school’s mission (Marzano, 2010). Assessments need to be use to guide instruction and used as a “method for improvement and mastery,” (Marzano, 2010). While determining my own theory of learning, I believe that I need to consider what effective teachers demonstrate in the classroom.
Most people see teachers and professors in the same light. They perform similar tasks. They teach. However, they are separated by a fine line of distinction. High school teachers help a student build a foundation of knowledge, and train the student to focus on learning. College professors help to shape and define a student’s foundation of knowledge, and challenge the student to cultivate the mind. High school teachers and college professors have similar goals and guidelines, but they take a differing approach to achieving the end result. The way the class is conducted, academic expectations, and view of student responsibility are a few of the contrasts between high school teachers and college professors.
The inclusion of engaging activities in this course is not completely clear from the information provided in the syllabus. While details about the texts that will be covered throughout the tentative course outline are shared, there is very little information on the actual learning activities that will be completed by students. In several areas of the syllabus, lists of activity types are given without description. It is stated that students will conduct research, work in groups, keep journals, and take quizzes, but there is no additional information about the expectations or format these assignments will take. The depth of knowledge on these activities is unclear, but may be an area of concern. Rigor is mentioned, but not substantiated with examples or evidence. While this may not be indicative of the actual learning experiences that students complete in class, the actual information on the syllabus guides the reader to the conclusion that students will primarily remain in the lower levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy, for example remembering and understanding, in regards to thinking skills accessed (Ainsworth, 2010, Reeves, 2006). With additional explanation, any confusion or doubt about the focus and purpose of the assignments for this course would be