Down syndrome; what is it and how does it affect the people who have it? Roughly 1 in 800 infants born in Canada are affected by Down syndrome. Down syndrome, also called Trisomy 21, is a chromosomal disorder that is caused by an extra genetic material in the individual. It delays the way an individual develops both mentally and physically. Down syndrome cannot be prevented but it can be detected before birth.
At the time of conception an infant inherits genes from its parents in the form of 46 chromosomes. Each parent gives the infant 23 chromosomes. If an infant happens to receive an extra chromosome they will have 47 chromosomes as opposed to 46. Having this extra copy of the twenty-first chromosome is the cause of Down syndrome. There is no known way to stop an infant from being born with Down syndrome as of right now. It has been scientifically proven that women over 35 have a higher risk of giving birth to an infant with Down syndrome. For example, a woman has a 1 in 1000 chance of conceiving an infant with Down syndrome when in her thirties. Those odds drastically increase to almost 1 in 400 by the age of 35 and even up to 1 in 100 by the age of 40. (Gavin, 2012)
There are a handful of ways for healthcare providers to diagnose for Down syndrome. This can be done either during pregnancy or shortly after birth. There are two options for prenatal diagnosis and one option for after the infant is born. Prenatal screening consists of a blood test and an ultrasound test during the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Prenatal diagnostic is a bit more complicated. This testing involves removing a sample of genetic material and having it tested for extra chromosome 21 material. There are three procedures used to extract material...
... middle of paper ...
Book, I. (1993). The World Book encyclopedia 1993. Chicago, IL: World Book, Inc..
Newton, R. (2004). The Down's syndrome handbook: a practical guide for parents and carers (New ed.). London: Vermilion.
Brill, M. T. (1993). Keys to parenting a child with Down syndrome. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Barron's Educational Series.
Down Syndrome: Occupational Therapy Demonstration. (2013, April 4). YouTube. Retrieved April 16, 2014, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rz4wbdeqIPM
Down Syndrome - Ability Awareness PSA Video. (2009, February 24). YouTube. Retrieved April 16, 2014, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TIcbFrt4F_c
Living With Down Syndrome. (n.d.). ABC News. Retrieved April 16, 2014, from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/video/living-with-down-syndrome-15483374