Human beings are confronted with numerous issues throughout his or her lifetime that would require him or her to examine the best action to take to avoid the damaging consequences. In most cases, individuals restrain his or her action to take into consideration the consequences that may lead to the right or wrong behavior. One’s ethical and moral standards are first learned at an early age from his or her culture, how he or she is raised, religious background, and social system. Scientifically, there are various ethical theories, such as the virtue theory, deontological ethics, and utilitarianism (Boylan, 2009). By understanding these theories one can compare, contrast and uncover the reasoning behind his or her ethical and moral standards.
We live in an imperfect world where things can inevitably go wrong although our actions meant well. Ethical actions should not be judged by a good outcome rather by a good will. Ethics are principles of right and wrong that guide a body of professionals on how to conduct their duties. In this paper good will is explained as an act of kindness towards oneself. This essay will explore the deontological moral theory by Kant in relation to utilitarianism by Mill.
Cahn, Steven M. and Peter Markie, Ethics: History, Theory and Contemporary Issues. 4th Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Philosophies of the ethical theory are numerous but to begin the study of one particular ethical theory, we must understand what the concept of ethics means. The ethical theory focuses on standards of right and wrong that help determine what why one should do not based on laws, feelings, religion, culture or science, but upon what is the right thing in a given situation (Velasquez et al., 2015). To further this investigation looking at ethics from a Christian worldview Rae (2013) defines ethics as “primarily the task of discerning, or discovering, right and wrong both from God’s word in God’s world” (P. 55). Therefore, discussion and investigation of Aristotle’s ethical theory Virtue Ethics will commence.
In the history of ethics there are three principal standards of conduct, each of which has been proposed as the highest good: happiness or pleasure; du...
The shifting views towards morals and ethics seen throughout history have long been a topic of discussion among philosophers. Three major transitions in views towards which morals hold more meaning have happened, the pre-enlightenment, enlightenment and post-enlightenment periods; periods in which philosophers Nel Noddings and James Conroy share many common views. In regards to education of morals, views have also changed. Discussing each of their specific views and finding major points of comparison will help formulate a more knowledgeable view on the three major periods of change in regards to morals and ethics. Noddings individual perspective of how morals have changed throughout history, and how they should properly be taught to students will give a solid foundation on how morals have shifted.
The story line circling around the planned murder drove the thoughts of Dr. Glas; however, the way the inner life of Glas is rendered, the descriptions of the weather and the nature, his thoughts, emotions and dreams seem influenced by depth psychology. Glas faces the challenge whether to follow situations in a moral or ethical manner. The brain functions as a power house, a center for thinking. The perspective of social norms changesed. It is up to the individual to follow the norms of society. Each individual have their own perspective on the definition of “right” and “wrong.” Sonderberg portrays religion as the driving force of morals - that religion controls the actions of everyday life. Certain situations arises that may follow up to actions that are classified as “immoral” by religion but may be deemed justified by the individual. The defining rules of moral and righteousness is not set by religion but rather set by each individual. In this paper, Glas initially feels obligated to follow religious ethics but began to follow the proper social morals .
Aristotle’s psychological types, as described in “Nichomachean Ethics,” are a categorization of different internal moral characters. These categories are a comprehensive attempt - for ancient philosophy - at identifying which internal psychologies manifest virtuous or morally bad behaviour. His moral categories are somewhat obsolete in a post-modern world, where science and politics are far more developed than in Ancient Greece. However, moral psychological ethics and normative debate still holds a relevant position in the moral undercurrent of society – it is dispersed through legal, political, military and medical activity, in relationships and familial function. It is for this reason, that Immanuel Kant examined a similar issue in “Pure Practical Reason and the Moral Law,” and that it still makes for interesting philosophical discussion.
Rachels, Stuart, and James Rachels. The Elements of Moral Philosophy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2012. Print.
The concept of “the will” still continues to be approached by many philosophers in numerous ways that offer answers to the questions as to what makes one commit acts that can be defined as virtuous or unvirtuous. Augustine and Socrates are two distinguished philosophers who, when read with the the consideration of the idea of the will and how it can manifest through bad and good activity, the people must be aware of the philosophers views for vice and sin. Augustine always writes with aspiration and goals in mind. Socrates states that sin is due to the wrongdoing of the individuals. The will for Augustine is separated from the power to act. Socrates does not have a sole interpretation of the will, he offers the belief that people do not deliberately