Comp. Trent University Department of English. Toronto: Canadian Scholars, 2010. Print. Plath, Sylvia.
Together, people create metaphorical ideas that turn into "real" artifacts, the representative structures of culture. The metaphorical idea of "school is work" produces the artifac tual world that fosters homework, working harder, earning grades, and managing classrooms (Danesi 108). These artifactual signs in turn perpetuate the controlling metaphor. Metaphors, then, are at the heart of understanding the way we view aspects of our culture while we simultaneously build that culture. Umberto Eco stresses that culture is a collective experience.
In science education the word constructivism is commonly used by science educator. Constructivism is a learning theory based on the idea that leaners learn and construct meaning and develop understanding based on their experiences in connection to their prior understanding. It may sound that the constructivist science educators favor the traditional teaching approaches by bombarding students with facts, however, the inquiry-based approaches in teaching support constructivist idea of learning as well. In inquiry oriented classroom, teacher-student interaction forms the important component of classroom talk. Teachers are regular component of classroom talk and they play a crucial role in constructing the nature of discourse in a lesson.
According to constructivists, a classroom is not the only place where the teachers pour/ transmit knowledge and the learners just receive it. Conceptual change develops gradually by modifying, refining and transforming previous knowledge structures, Brooks, 1980 cited by Todd J.R, 1990. There are two broad epistemological positions: positivism and interpretivism/ constructivism. Based on the above beliefs, I will use interpretivist paradigm for my research study. Freire believes that knowledge is socially constructed, learning is an active process, and knowledge is constructed from experience.