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Amyloidosis Case Study

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The human body is a complex and fragile system that requires metabolic balance throughout different organ systems by the use of different proteins. For a human body to maintain the metabolic balance, everything must be functioning properly. Amyloid is an abnormal protein that is produced in the bone marrow can are deposited in organs. The amyloid proteins are misfolded proteins that are copied and have stuck together to produce a large fibril, losing their normal function as well as disrupting the functions of nearby tissues and organs(Amyloidosis Foundation, 2016). This production of amyloid proteins arises from at least eighteen different proteins and polypeptides that have misfolded and are also associated with multiple diseases and disorders…show more content…
Once the protein has decided on which organ they like, the functions of those organ systems will start to become affect. Each type of amyloidosis requires the correct diagnosis, which will also require different treatment. There are multiple types of amyloidosis but the two main types are Immunoglobulin light chain and Serum A protein (AA). Amyloidosis is represented in multiple diseases where an amyloid is produced and have attached itself to a place within the body, affecting the function of this organ.
The most common type of Amyloidosis is the Immunoglobulin Light Chain Amyloidosis, also known as AL amyloidosis and Primary systemic amyloidosis (PSA). This particular amyloidosis is caused by a proliferation disorder that is caused by “extracellular tissue deposits of insoluble fibrils derived from κ or λ immunoglobulin light chains” (Cardoso, Leal, Sá, & Campos, 2016, p. 1). Testing for Immunoglobulin Light Chain amyloidosis involves Blood and urine test, echocardiogram and imaging, and/or tissue, bone marrow, or organ biopsy (Amyloidosis Foundation, 2016). The proliferation disorder in the kidney can cause multiple diseases such as nephrotic syndrome. Amyloidosis plays a key part in nephrotic syndrome
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AA Amyloidosis involves the build-up of serum Amyloid A protein (SAA), which is an acute phase protein used during inflammation (S, D, & S, 2009). This particular amyloidosis is a result or a reaction to an illness similar to a chronic inflammatory disease or an infection. The SAA protein is normally produced in the liver at a large amount. In a normal/ healthy human being, after inflammation has occurred the SAA protein will break down to amino acids and be recycled. In a AA amyloidosis patient, however, the chronic inflammation will cause the SAA protein to separate, making AA amyloid proteins and therefore will deposit itself into the tissues (Amyloidosis Foundation, 2016). The most common organ that Serium Amyloid A proteins deposit is within the kidneys. There are cases of renal diseases with AA amyloidosis that was resulted due to tuberculosis. According to the Case Reports in Transplantation, a patient, in India, reported to having pulmonary tuberculosis and completed treatment in 2009 but had now developed “progressive pedal edema and nausea” (Kute, et al., 2013, p. 1). The renal disease is related to AA amyloidosis nephropathy, which is characterized by nephrotic syndrome and a decrease in functions. The nephrotic syndrome is the first symptom of the AA amyloidosis, resulting in a low level amount of albumin in blood, causing edema and high
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