Several internal and external factors contribute to childhood obesity; however, many people believe that parents are primarily to blame for obese children and adolescents. On the other hand, medical professionals and sociologists have studied the consistent decline in physical activity and external societal influences that help to contribute to childhood obesity. Childhood obesity is comprised of several internal components. It is commonly believed that obesity is caused by a gene produced during the perinatal stage of human development that increases the likelihood of weight gain in children. The perinatal phase of development occurs, “from the twentieth week of gestation to the twenty-eighth day of newborn life” ("Perinatal,").
There have been studies performed to research the effects of obesity on children and adolescents, which I am going to review. First, let me discuss some statistics that have been measured by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Within the past 30 years, the incidence of obesity among children has doubled and the incidence among adolescents has quadrupled ( Childhood Obesity Facts, 2014). Childhood Obesity Facts (2014) reported that in 2012, more than 1/3 of our youth suffered from being obese or overweight . An imbalance in caloric metabolism is to blame for obesity; however, this imbalance can be due to an assortment of factors (Childhood Obesity Facts, 2014), not just overeating and a lack of exercise.
In the recent decades, obesity has grown into a major health issue in the United States within young people. With 31 percent of the United States of children being obese, the United States has become the country with the highest rate of obesity in the world. Obesity is not only found among adults, but it is also now found mainly among children and teenagers. The childhood is a very important period for the initiation of obesity especially in this time. Eating practices that children are taught or learn during childhood affects a person later in their life whether they know or not.
This concern has prompted intense investigation of the causes of childhood studies, aside from socioeconomic status, three major causes have been shown: diet, genetics or biological factors, and lifestyle. Because fat must have a source from which to increase, diet is an obvious contributor to obesity in children. Dietary guidelines recommend that children between the ages of 6 and 11 should receive about 1800 calories a day, with 50% from carbohydrates, 30% from fat, and 20% from protein (Bastin, 47). With the ready availability of high calorie/high carbohydrate soft drinks, fruit juice, and high carbohydrate snacks, children?s diets have become increasingly less nutritious. Surveys conducted among children and teenagers have shown that 7 out of 10 children eat fruit once a day, and 5 out of 10 teenagers eat fruit once a day (Bastin, 47).
doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.4.557 Purcell, M. (2010). Raising healthy children: Moral and political responsibility for childhood obesity. Journal of Public Health Policy, 32(4), 433–446. doi:10.1057/jphp.2010.28 Speiser, P. W., Rudolf, M. C., Anhalt, H., Camacho-Hubner, C., Chiarelli, F., Eliakim, A., . .
Children become obese because of various genetic, behavioral and environmental factors. What is childhood obesity? According to the Obesity Action Coalition says, “Obesity is a condition that is associated with having an excess of body fat, defined by genetic and environmental factors that are difficult to control when dieting”. (Obesity Action Coalition)Childhood obesity is caused by juvenile diabetes and that is a leading factor for children between the ages of six through adolescence. Many experts... ... middle of paper ... ...c OneFile.
Childhood obesity is a difficult problem with our growing children today. Childhood obesity not only affect the child, but it also the people around them. Childhood obesity cause serious health issues, from heart disease to diabetes. According to Farhat (2010), twenty years ago there was just a hand full of children that were overweight, mostly because of a hormonal or genetic disorder. According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services (2013), the number of children aged 6 through11 that were obese, increased from 7 percent in 1980, to nearly 30 percent in 2011.
Childhood obesity has become a source of concern for the health of adolescents and children. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) defines obesity as any child with a Body Mass Index (BMI) at or over the 95th percentile. The trend of childhood obesity in America is overwhelming with an increase of nearly 20 percent in our children and adolescents since 1980 (CDC, 2013). Recent studies have shown childhood obesity is at 17% for 2-19 year olds. Obesity in children is a contributing factor of hypertension, high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease (CVD).
(2013). Childhood obesity. Public Health Nutrition, 16(2), 191. doi:10.1017/S1368980012005332 Wiecha, J. L., Peterson, K. E., Ludwig, D. S., Kim, J., Sobol, A., & Gortmaker, S. L. (2006). When children eat what they watch: Impact of television viewing on dietary intake in youth. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 160(4), 436-442. doi:10.1001/archpedi.160.4.436 Winson, A., Sumner, J., & Koç, M. (2012).
“The nation’s obesity epidemic has become so bad that it has taken over tobacco as the leading cause of preventable diseases” (Gaffney). Health care costs linked to obesity and resulting conditions such as diabetes and heart disease are greater than those related to smoking and excessive drinking (Gaffney). A child between the ages two to nineteen with a body mass index above the ninety-fifth percentile for his/her age, height, and sex by today’s standards are obese (Singhal). This problem is a serious medical condition and can affect many children for years to come. Today in the United States, more than seventeen percent of all children are obese (Marcus).