M.H. Abrams. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1993. Eliot, Thomas Stearns. "The Waste Land" in The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Sixth Edition, Volume 2.
“Robert Frost” Norton Anthology of American Literature Shorter 7th Edition. New York: Norton, 2008. 1951-1952. Cahan, Abraham. “A Sweatshop Romance” Baym 1661-1670 Dickinson, Emily.
309. Print. Andrews, William L. "Marse Chan: A Tale of Old Virginia." The Literature of the American South: a Norton Anthology. New York: W.W. Norton, 1998.
Abrams. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2000. 259-70. Wordsworth, William. “Preface to Lyrical Ballads.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Romantic Period.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999. 428-40. Poe, Edgar Allan. “Ligeia.” The Norton Anthology: American Literature. Ed.
81-240. Melville, Herman. "Hawthorne and His Mosses." Literary World. 17 and 24 Aug. 1850.
Ralph Waldo Emerson: A Man Thinking By the early 1800’s, a new sense of literary freedom was present in America. The colonial writers of the past were heavily influenced by their European roots, and the limits of technology had kept printed literature from great diversification. By the late 1700’s however, American population was exploding, the printed word had become much more accessible, and the newfound freedom from Britain created an environment perfect for the spread of new ideas. The search for a national identity and a spirit of nonconformity had entered the hearts of many Americans, such as writers David Hume, Henry David Thoreau, George Putnam, and Frederick Henry Hedge. Led by Ralph Waldo Emerson, the progressive philosophy of Transcendentalism took shape in the 1820’s and 1830’s, and its proponents began to question the validity of religious doctrines and protested the intellectual institutions that were in place.
Early radical, transcendental activists believe that their approach of living is the gateway to America’s future and that they are leading by example, in hopes that other non-transcendentalists, intellectual societies will choose follow in their footsteps towards actual freedom. During the nineteenth century, transcendentalism is as much of a philosophy as it is a religion and physical movement. The philosophical aspect of transcendentalism greatly influences early American societies because early societies were considered extremely intellectual, thus the thought of transcendentalism drew in many scholars. This aspect also assisted in the common man’s view on nature and surrounding life. John L. Locke, an English philosopher, refused the concept of intuitive ideas and declared, "There is nothing in the mind except what was first in the senses" (“Locke”).
Though America became independent in 1776 it was still controlled by the British politically. Colleges, schools and churches had to follow the strict laws regulated by the British government and Americans were asked to pay tax to the government. It was during this time when scholars started to revolt against the British government and people started reasoning. One such man who influenced Romantic Period would be Ralph Waldo Emerson. He influenced scholars and people in America with his literary work and was named Transcendentalism.