Alzheimer’s is a disease that destroys the memory and other important brain functions. Alzheimer's is a disease where the brain cells die; which also can cause other brain cells to become disconnected, the result is progressive memory loss and mental breakdown. These chemical breakdowns are enough to interfere with normal everyday activities. The leading cause of Alzheimer’s is dementia, which are several brain disorders that cause social and intellectual skills. The disease affects not only the person but it also affects the family members and friends close to the person.
This could relentlessly strain health-care systems because the Disease is so persistent, disabling, and costly. Based on postmortem examinations of remaining brain tissues in Alzheimer’s patients, Amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles are the two main characteristics involved with Alzheimer’s disease. (5) Amyloid-B is a protein that accumulates on the inside and outside of neurons. High levels of amyloid proteins damage axons and dendrites. (3) These damaged axons and dendrites cluster into structures called amyloid plaques, which begin to form before any behavioral symptoms appear (3).
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/topics/alzheimers-basics http://inserbia.info/today/2013/06/alzheimers-disease-cause-found/ http://www.alz.org/downloads/Facts_Figures_2014.pdf http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/alzheimers-disease/basics/tests-diagnosis/com-20023871 What is alzheimers?. Retrieved from http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_what_is_alzheimers.asp
This resulted in medications being approved which could treat the symptoms of the disease. What causes Alzheimer’s The causes of Alzheimer’s aren’t fully understood yet, but research shows that it is related to plaque and threads of the tau protein twisting. Brain cells depend on these as a transport system to carry nutrients around and through the brain. Scientists also believe that the brain gets affected by a combination of lifestyle, genetic and environmental factors over time. These factors can kill brain cells and in time brain shrinkage occurs.
One theory regarding the cause of Alzheimer’s disease suggests that this plaque forms because the processes that normally operate to clear away this protein have become defective. Neurofibillary tangles are skeins of another abnormal protein, but the tangle is found inside the nerve cells. The reason why the tangles develop is not known, but the normal processing of protein by the cell seems to be disrupted. These tangles choke the nerve cells and prevent them for working properly. For reasons not well understood, these plaques and tangles take over healthy brain tissue, which devastates the areas of the brain associated with intellectual function.
Findings from epidemiology, genetics, molecular and cell biology are fitting together in the Alzheimer's puzzle, helping researchers to identify some of the mechanisms that underlie it. Alzheimer's starts because the normal processing of certain proteins goes terribly wrong. This causes brain cells and the spaces between them to be cluttered with pieces of toxic protein. Closer investigating with microscopes has revealed a loss of nerve cells in certain regions of the brain. Some of these dying nerve cells communicate using the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, these compounds eventually break down by an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase.
“Alzheimer 's disease is a brain disease in which damaged and dying brain cells cause mental deterioration over a period of time” (“Alzheimer’s Disease,” 2015). This disease has affected millions of families all across the world, and it is a disease where patients become worse as time goes on. The cause of Alzheimer’s seems to be the buildup of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, while some cases are also linked to genetics (“Alzheimer’s Disease,” 2015). These changes in the brain alter the personality and behavior of the individual. These changes make it difficult to care of a patient with Alzheimer’s, but there are certain qualities one needs to have in order to work with someone who has this disease.
Retrieved March 19, 2014, from http://www.malehealth.co.uk/node/18813 Dementia-Treatment Overview. (n.d.). Retrieved March 13, 2014, from http://www.webmd.com/alzheimers/tc/dementia-treatment-overview Living with dementia magazine April 2009. (n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2014, from http://alzheimers.org.uk/site/scripts/documents_info.php?documentID=917 Read What Your Physician is Reading on Medscape.
Too much beta-amyloid is toxic and causes plaque buildup between neurons that reduces levels of acetylcholine which makes is difficult to retrieve old memories and make new ones (Marieb and Hoehn 2013). Another abnormality of Alzheimer’s disease is the presence of neurofibrillary tangles inside the neuron. These tangles consist of tau, a protein that leaves its stabilizing role and binds to another tau molecule forming a neurofibrillary tangle. (Marieb and Hoehn 2013). Neurofibrillary tangles then kill the neuron.