Alkem Case Study

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1.1 Pharmaceutical industries
The pharmaceutical companies develop drugs and deals with the production and marketing of product, they prepare generic or brand medicines and medical devices.[1]
1.1.1 Alkem Laboratories[2]
Alkem Laboratories Ltd. which is today one of India's top 10 pharmaceutical companies commenced operations in 1973. In last three decades Alkem has taken rapid strides and occupies a pride of place in the organized Indian pharmaceutical sector. Alkem is marching towards becoming one of the top 5 Indian pharmaceutical companies. Moreover, Alkem is also expanding its frontiers globally and is progressing towards becoming a globally recognized entity. Alkem is a significant player in the branded drugs and generic drugs space. With a wide ranging presence across acute and chronic therapeutic segments with substantial brand share in the Central Nervous System, Gastro-intestinal, Anti-diabetic, Anti-osteoporosis, Anti-malarial, Cardiovascular, Immunosuppressant, and Nutraceutical segments, Alkem leads the Indian market in the Anti-infective and Pain Management segments.

Fig1.1: Alkem Laboratories
1.1.2 Research and Development
Research & Development activities play a vital part in maintaining Alkem's market position through Development and subsequent commercial scale ups of new products. Research & Development at Alkem is making a major contribution to strengthen corporate competitiveness by concentrating on product value addition and technological prowess. It also provides technical support to the export markets.
Alkem's Research & Development Centre is located at Taloja, Mumbai. The facilities comprise of fully equipped, modern state-of-the-art laboratories, sophisticated information services, an...

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...f is membrane bound. The terminal glycine residue of the pentaglycine bridge is linked with the 4th residue of the pentapeptide (D-alanine) releasing the 5th residue (also D-alanine). This is the last step where inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis takes place by the beta lactam antibiotics.
There is no clarity between the relationship between inhibition of penicillin binding proteins (PBP) activity and activation of autolysins. Some evidence suggests that exposure of bacteria to beta lactam antibiotics results in the loss of an inhibitor of the autolysins.
According to Selwyn, 1980, Beta lactam antibiotics can interfere with cell wall synthesis only in growing cells, but presumably these antibiotics can bind to the transpeptidase and related enzymes even in resting cells thus inhibiting the terminal stages of cell wall synthesis if growth is subsequently resumed.
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