Alfred Stepan And Asymmetrical Federalism

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therefore should be a balance of accommodation of regional interests and an established integration of each subnational unit into the national federal system (Iff, 2002). On the other hand, Asymmetrical federalism allows three possible systems: 1-more power at the national level, 2-certain regional, subnational units to have more power in the national government, or 3-a combination of both. As Andrea Iff suggests, this can provide enough fuel for separatist movements dissatisfied with the uneven representation of regional interests (Iff, 2002). The disaffected subnational units may become disillusioned with the federal system in their nation and either attempt to overthrow the system or secede from the federation to establish local self-governance. A third perspective outlined by Alfred Stepan, federalism takes three forms: “coming together”, “holding together”, and “putting together” (Stepan, 1999; Abraham, 2005-6). “Coming together” federations are situations where separate sovereign polities agree to establish a political union while safeguarding political autonomy. “Holding together” federations are an attempt to maintain an already existing polity’s unity by devolving power through the allotment of increased self-governance at the subnational level under a less powerful federal government. “Putting together” federations are based primarily in uniting disparate polities through coercive means by a centralizing power and tend to produce a non-democratic form of federalism, and are an attempt to accommodate diversity in a territorial manner and offset intergroup conflict (Stepan, 1999; Abraham, 2005-6). Specifically, forms of federalism that were transplanted to colonial holdings by the British and French during the colon... ... middle of paper ... ...ts at times supporting both sides. Ethiopian and Cuban forces successfully repulsed the Somali fighters after approximately 8 months of fighting. National troops returned their attentions to the long war on the Eritrean border. The Ethiopian victory further cemented a sense of national pride as well as distinguished military accomplishment, and civil fortitude (Tareke, 2000). Map released by the CIA The reign of the Derg was immediately at risk, however, due to internal opposition to its policies as well as through regional warfare that included the invasion of Somalia in 1977 and the continued Eritrean War of Independence. Its policies included an extreme land reform program that nationalized rural lands, ended land tenancy, and allowed peasants the opportunity to manage these lands. Additionally, the Derg nationalized the majority industries. However,

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