Alexander III of Macedonia

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Alexander III of Macedonia is known as the most successful military leader and conqueror, undefeated in the field of battle. He is known as Alexander the Great, and he achieved his military success before the age of thirty. Alexander the Great, according to the biographer Arrian, “would not have been born without the intervention of the gods” and goes on to say that his life “surpasses the merely human.” Alexander, according to early historians, achieved success because of his superior intellect, creativity, and inhuman military strength and courage. He is referred as “the Great” more than any other title. According to later criticisms, however, Alexander the Great conquered Asia Minor because of many external factors and components that made a conquest of the region not only possible, but imminent. While many historians prefer to talk about Alexander’s military genius, many other factors outside of Alexander’s control are also responsible for his successful and undefeated conquest at such a young age. Alexander’s father, Philip, laid the groundwork of a military loyal to the throne. Many of the military developments used by Alexander were also actually developed by his father. The Macedonian phalanx, military drills, and its organization may have been utilized successfully in battle by Alexander, but were innovated by his father and predecessor. His father is also responsible for uniting Greece before Alexander’s rule. With a united Greece behind him, Alexander could focus all military, diplomatic and economic energy outwards and on his campaign. The campaign itself was a continuation of the plans of expansion that King Philip II was to lead until his death interrupted. Asia Minor, the area that Alexander conquered was a massiv...

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