Each canton sets the pre-school enrollment age. Children who have reached the respective age by the specified cut-off date are enrolled in pre-school at the start of the school year in the fall term. In the majority of the cantons, the minimum pre-school enrolment age is between 4 years, 0 months, and 4 years, 9 months. The objective of pre-schools is to encourage the socio-affective, psycho-motoric and cognitive development of children and prepares them for entry into school. There is no specific assessment of performance in preschool.
Literature and History Alcoholism is a disease characterized by factors such as a strong craving for alcohol, continued use despite past harm, the inability to limit drinking, withdrawal symptoms when drinking stops, and the need to increase the amount consumed to feel the effects (CDC, Frequently Asked Questions). It is estimated that over 76 million people worldwide suffer from an alcohol consumption problem (greenfacts.org). The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) conducted a study in 2005 which showed that alcohol abuse can start as early as 8th grade. The NIAAA study showed that 11 percent of 8th graders engaged in binge drinking. By the time the student reaches 12th grade, the study shows that 29 percent of peers will also be binge drinking.
Persons who suffer from addiction often need help in order to break the cycle of abuse. With a variety of treatment options available to addicts counselors have a plethora of treatments to choose from and utilize in helping clients stop abusing. Teaching clients the skills to stop abusing drugs and alcohol involves various approaches and techniques geared toward the client’s individual needs. Addiction counselor use specific techniques to assist clients in learning how to live healthy lives without drugs and alcohol. This paper will discuss the concepts of individualized addiction treatment.
The United States school systems also start at about six years old, when the children go to elementary school. When elementary school is completed, at about eleven, students continue on to middle school. Middle school is three years long and ends when most kids are fourteen. After middle school, there is high school where kids go for four years and end when they are eighte... ... middle of paper ... ...14. Gove, Philip Babcock.
Gilkson states “the percentage reporting a 5-plus heavy drinking episode during the past 12 months was 62.4%” (Gilkson et al. 438). This alarming number shows that drinking as well as binge drinking on campuses is overly common. There has been an increase in the quantity as well as the frequency of alcohol intake. “Statistics Canada data on sales of alcoholic beverages (in litres of absolute alcohol) show that per adult consumption of alcohol has increased by over 11% in Canada in the past decade” (Stockwell et al, 2007).
Frey and Schonbeck explain that it is estimated that over 76 million people worldwide are affected by alcohol abuse or dependence. The chance of having an alcoholic in one’s life is very high. Children that grow up in an environment with an alcoholic may increase that child’s chance of becoming an alcoholic themselves. In the United States, the most commonly abused drug among youth is alcohol. Even though the legal drinking age is 21, nearly 20% of all alcohol consumed in the United States is by people under the legal age (83).
Then by the twelfth grade over eighty percent of all teenagers have had a drink and sixty-four percent have been drunk (Youth and Underage Drinking: An Overview). These are shocking and startling facts for some. But the truth is, it?s there. What is the problem with all of these minors drinking? There are quite a few people who do not think that drinking at a young age is bad for you.
Despite the long-term decline since 1982 in alcohol related traffic deaths, a 4 percent increase occurred between 1994 and 1995 among young adults age 21 and over (Hingson 4). As alcohol-impaired driving persists, legal and community initiatives intervene to help reduce the problem, as well as, continuing research on possible solutions. Problems Posed by Alcohol-Impaired Driving: The biggest problem with drunk driving by young adults is the high rate of traffic accidents. Although young drivers ages 16 through 25 makeup only 15% of U.S. licensed drivers, they constitute 30 percent of all alcohol-related driving fatalities. This is double the amount of licensed drivers in that age group.
All British children must stay at school from the age of 5 until they are 16. Many of them stay longer and take final examination when they are 17 or 18. Before 1965 all children had to go through special intelligence tests. There were different types of state secondary schools and at the age of 11 children went to different schools in accordance of with the results of the tests. State schools are divided into the following types: - Grammar schools.
Laws in most states require school attendance until graduation or until kids are the age 16, most high schools require attendance until the age of 17 or 18 . Conversely, students who fail a grade may stay in high school past the age of 18. Usually students over 19 attend remedial classes to receive a high school diploma or General Educational Development (GED) certificate. Each state’s laws vary on the cut-off age for students to get free public education services. Many states have adult high schools for people generally 18 and over.While other students can stay in high school past the age of 18 if it is deemed appropriate by that school.