Audit quality is one of the most prominent factors on determining the effectiveness of tax auditing. Audit quality is proven by the capacity of office in order to provide useful tax auditing findings and recommendations. The auditor is required to meet the performance standards which able to perform well in work by providing useful audit findings and recommendations for improvement. The office’s capability to correctly plan and perform the audit findings is considered as a proxy of audit quality. Therefore, the high audit quality could lead to an effective tax
The principles of the AICPA Code of Conduct should guide the work that Jose and Emily do as auditors. The principles that specifically apply to this situation are Responsibilities, The Public Interest, and Due Care. CPAs have the responsibility to “exercise sensitive professional and moral judgments in all activities.” (Mintz, p. 19)
Auditing has become quite a challenge in recent years due to all the fraud scandals that has been going on. Such is the case that government was required to intervene and created the Sarbanes-Oxley Act; one of most significant reforms related to public companies since 1934. Modern corporations aren’t ran by their sole proprietors anymore but by managers whose job is to protect their interest. Particularly this is one of the reasons why the demand of auditing arose due to the natural conflict of interest between the owner and the manager. Both of these individuals will naturally look out for their best interest and will forget about the other. The owner wishes to see his company grow while the manager wishes to grow his pockets; their interests
The external auditor may be not discover the whole fraud information, but if they have the responsibility, they will found the company’s fraud is not difficult. The public think the auditor has responsibility to detect the financial statements’ fraud and to do the report to disclose the fraud, the auditor has responsibility to do this , but the auditor also has the other responsibility, not only detect and report the material fraud. The auditor responsibility to detect the material fraud just one part of the auditor responsibility. The auditor professional guidance has four parts. The auditor’s responsibility for the detection of fraud, the auditor’s responsibility for reporting fraud to management, the auditor’s responsibility for reporting fraud to shareholders and the auditor’s responsibility for reporting fraud to third parties. First, The auditor's responsibility for the detection of fraud is limited planning, performing and evaluating the work to enable employees to have a reasonable expectation to detect whether there are some false materials in the financial statements. It could impair the truth and fairness of the view given by the financial statements, whether these misstatements were caused by fraud, other irregularities or errors. The Guangxia event just because the auditor not evaluate the financial statements as well, not act the economic-police as well. They just consider their own interest, not effective to implement the evidence-based, certification and verification procedures. Second, The auditor’s responsibility for reporting fraud to management, the auditor should report to the firm’s management of the employee frauds. If the firm give the auditor a true and fair financial statement point, despite the statement has some fraud or other irregularity points, the auditor will have no specific responsibility to report fraud or other irregularities in
With every business activity come opportunities for fraudulent behavior which leads to a greater demand for auditors with unscathed ethics. Nowadays, auditors are faced with a multitude of ethical issues, and it is even more problematic when the auditors fail to adhere to the standards of professional conducts as prescribed by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). The objective of this paper is to analyze the auditors’ compliance with the code of professional conduct in the way it relates to the effectiveness of their audits.
In addition, by deciding not to inform the limited partners of Ed’s deceit, Andrea would be disregarding the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Code of Professional Conduct in her being unreliable, dishonest and deceitful. Andrea has the responsibility of protecting her client, which involves encouraging the correction of financial statements in order to prevent suspicion during audits that could lead to fines and imprisonment.
Individual Article Review Lily Cobian LAW/421 March 31, 2014 Ramon E. Ortiz-Velez Individual Article Review Introduction My article review is based on Sarbanes-Oxley and audit failure, a critical examination why the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was established and why it is not a guarantee to prevent failure of audits. Sarbanes-Oxley Act talks about scandals of Enron which occurred in 2001 and even more appalling the company’s auditor, Arthur Anderson, found guilty of shredding company documents after finding out Enron Company was going to be audited. The exorbitant amounts of money auditors get paid to hide audit discrepancies was also beyond belief. The article went on to explain many companies hire relatives or friends to do their audits, resulting in fraud, money embezzlement, corruption and even the demise of companies. Resulting in the public losing faith in the accounting profession, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act passed in 2002 by congress was designed to restrict what company owners and auditors can and cannot do. From what I gathered in the article, ever since the implementation of the Sarbanes- Oxley Act there has been somewhat of an improvement but questions are still being asked as to why there are still issues that are not being targeted in hopes of preventing more audit failures. The article also talked about four common causes of audit failure: unintentional auditor mistakes, fraud, fatigue and auditor client relationships. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) Code of Professional Conduct clearly states an independent auditor because it produces a credible audit, however, when there is conflict of interest, the relation of a former employer, or a relative or even the fear of getting fire...
The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, by authority of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, is responsible for the creation of auditing and the associated professional practice standards for registered public accounting firms to abide by when preparing and issuing audit reports. The auditing standards relating to audit risk, audit evidence, and the relationship of auditing standards to quality control are outlined in Auditing Standards 1101, 1105, and 1110. This block of standards enumerates the general concepts relating to auditing standards.
Proverbs 10:9 states: “People with integrity walk safely, but those who follow crooked paths will slip and fall” (New Living Translation).” This Scripture suggests that individuals who do not walk in integrity follow “crooked paths.” They walk in ways that are not morally sound, pure, and honest—but in ways that are corrupt. Clients want accountants with integrity. Thus, integrity is critical to the public trust. As a matter of fact, one of the general definitions of integrity provided by the AICPA Code is that it is a quality from which the public trust derives. Also, it is an element of character fundamental to professional recognition, and it requires members to be (among other things) honest and candid within the constraints of confidentiality (Duska, Duska & Ragatz, 2011). Integrity in the accounting profession involves adhering to the rules and principles of the profession. This includes remaining free of conflicts of interest and maintaining client relationships in which the accountant can remain objective in discharging his or her responsibilities. This requires independence in fact and in appearance as mandated under section 1.200.001.01, Independence Rule the AICPA Code. In other words, no one should be able to view the accountant as being biased with respect to a client’s financial reporting due to an improper client relationship. Lack of integrity in accounting practices has been, and continues to be, a key element in the downfall of many institutions which has hurt the public trust in the accounting
The remainder of this paper will address the findings of a study outlined in the noted case. It includes a discussion of the restrictions placed on the accounting profession and whether these restrictions eliminate any ethical concerns. This is followed by an examination of h...
However, in terms of an audit firm, it may not pay much attention to the audit procedures since they are always the same and the firm cooperates with its client for several decades. Subsequently, the firm or auditors may hold their client’s shares so that they would like to make an extra income by creating accounting to enhance the financial statements. Finally, when the firm provides other service like taxation and management consultancy to their clients, the auditors may rely too heavily on the other services income and are reluctant to risk losing a client because of unqualified audit opinion although these services, sometimes facilitate the performance of other work by knowing sufficiently about the operations of their
99, Congress took steps in response to big fraud scandals and passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) in 2002 to restore public confidence in accounting profession. The intention of the new legislation is to “improve the audit effectiveness and the credibility of financial reporting” (Ernst & Young 2012). Generally, the Act focus on strengthening corporate governance, enhancing auditor independence and management accountability for financial disclosures and accuracy. Under Sarbanes-Oxley Act, auditors are prohibited to provide non-audit services for audited firms. In addition, Section 404 of the Act requires auditors to evaluate and issue an opinion regarding the effectiveness of the internal control over financial reporting of the audited firm. The act also requires auditors the audit committee, consisted of independent members, to engage and oversee the external auditors. The implementation of these rules has led to great improvements in audit
It is highly essential for accountants and business professionals to maintain a standard of ethical conduct in the workplace as the nature of their work places them in position of trust. (Senarante, 2011). Accountants have the responsibility to ensure that their duties are performed in accordance with the five fundamental principles set out in the Code of Professional Ethics such as integrity, objectivity, professional competence and due care, confidentially and professional behaviour (Cunningham et al. 2014). Accountants are expected to be reliable and trustworthy. Thus they are required to act ethically in relation to their clients, employers and the general public in order to provide quality services in the best interest of the society (Eginiwin & Dike, 2014). The International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) have established a code of ethics for accountants, allowing each specific country to add their own national ethical standards to the code to reflect cultural differences. The code provides emphasis on the five fundamental principles as well as resolution of ethical conflicts. In Australia, professional accounting bodies such as CPA Australia, Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia (ICCA) and the Institute of Public Accountants (IPA) adopt the Australian Professional and Ethical
...pendence, whether pro forma or substantially, the quality of professional assurance service of professional accountants will be doubted by public and that will probably lead to serious results. The factors affecting independence of external auditors are multiple. Market competition among external auditors and the imperfection of laws regulated the external auditing industry are tow of most important factors. In order to maintain and guarantee the independence of external auditors and try to avoid the scandals like Arthur Andersen, some research on how to improve and maintain the independence of external auditors are necessary. It is possible for researchers to put emphasis on how to control the market competition among auditing organizations and enhance the ability of accounting regulators to supervise and manage the professional accounting industry in the future.
The success of a company is very dependent upon its financial accounting. In accounting there are numerous Regulatory bodies that govern the accounting world. These companies are extremely important to a company because they set the standards when it comes to the language and decision making of a company. These regulatory bodies can be structured as agencies, associations, commissions, and boards. Without companies like the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC), The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB), Internal Accounting Standards Board (IASB), Internal Revenue Service (IRS), and other regulatory bodies a company could not make well informed decisions. In this paper the author will look at only four of them.