Description of Panic Disorder Everyone at some point have experience fear due to a situation that overwhelms us. This is an essential response of our bodies that can help us survive. However, when these fears are constant, they can disable an individual. Panic disorder (PD) it’s a mental illness that leads a person to have recurring panic attacks, (Strickland, 2001). Panic attacks in people with PD arise unexpectedly, situationally predisposed and / or by situations that remind them experienced dreadful events.
Agoraphobia can be divided into two word parts: agora, a Greek term meaning “marketplace” and phobia, meaning “the fear of something” (Miller, 2011). It is the fear of being in a communal or open place (Miller, 2011). When people have agoraphobia, they often evade situations that may cause them to panic, such as crowded places, leaving a common place, being unaccompanied, or being confined or humiliated (“Agoraphobia,” 2011; “Agoraphobia,” 2014). People often become imprisoned in their own home because they do not feel safe in public places or crowded places, such as malls, planes, sporting events, elevators, or public transportation (“Agoraphobia,” 2011). Initiating treatment can be difficult because it means facing the fear, but a combination of therapy and medicine can reduce the symptoms substantially (“Agoraphobia,” 2011; Miller, 2011).
Characteristics of agoraphobia are a marked fear or anxiety about two or more of the following: "using public transportation" like cars, planes, trains, and buses; "being in open spaces" like a market, a parking lot, a bridge, or ship; "being in enclosed places" like a store, a theater, or an elevator; "standing in line or being in a crowd"; or "being outside of the home alone." (APA, 2013, pg 217) This fear differs from other phobias in that the fear is not the specific place or thing, but the person is afraid that they might not be able to leave or get help if they panic or are incapacitated or have embarrassing symptoms or situations. This might be because of other medical conditions such as vomiting or inflammatory bowel symptoms. Older adults might fear falling. Children might fe...
Anxiety disorders are mental disorders caused by extreme or severe anxiety often caused by overwhelming worries, fears, and stress. Phobic disorder, commonly known as phobia, is a type of anxiety disorder wherein the individual acquires an excessive and irrational fear of a particular object or situation, with the fear being out of proportion to the real threat. “The word [phobia] is derived from Phobos, the Greek god of fear, whose likeness was painted on masks and shields to frighten enemies in battle.” (Passer and Smith 537) Jennifer Ong defines phobia as a heightened sense of fear. Also, according to her, psychologists assert that the fears in phobia are usually based on irrational grounds.
Severe anxiety, which can be described as an episode of terror, is referred to as a panic attack. Panic attacks can be extremely frightening. People who experience panic attacks over a prolonged time period may become victims of agoraphobia, which is a psychiatric disorder that is closely associated with the panic disorder. Patients with Agoraphobia avoid certain places or situations such as airplanes, crowded theaters, a grocery store or anyplace from which escape might be difficult. It is said that Agoraphobia can be so severe that it has made certain individuals housebound.
Panic Disorder is a type of anxiety disorder that consists of feelings of sudden fear, overwhelming fright, and fear of death. Panic disorder can be inherited, but it can also be the result of a stressful event that happened shortly before the feelings of panic occurred. Symptoms of panic disorder are some of the following: chest pains, heart palpitations, and shortness of breath, dizziness, and feelings of unreality, a sense of smothering, choking, and nausea. Many of these symptoms could occur to a person without having panic disorder at all. The attacks of panic disorder are often called “panic attacks.” Panic attack victims all stated that the panic attack lasted for what felt like several hours, but in actuality the attacks only last for a couple minutes. People that deal with panic disorders often have the phobia of never wanting to leave home also known as agoraphobia.
In the general population, less than five percent of people experience panic disorders, and only six percent develop agoraphobia during their lives, (MacNeil 2001). A diagnosis of panic disorder is given when panic attacks turn into a common occurrence, for no apparent reason and the person begins to change their behaviour because of the constant fear of having a panic attack. Someone suffering from agoraphobia has a fear of being somewhere where help will not be provided in case of an emergency; one third to one half of people diagnosed with panic disorders develops agoraphobia, (Hoeksema & Rector, 2011, p. 204). Research has examined two well-known ways a panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) can be treated: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) (alone and combined with two other medications) and Experimental Cognitive Therapy (ECT). Examining the research allows for a comparison of each treatment, along with a discussion of implications, resulting in determining which treatment is the most effective for someone who suffers from a panic disorder with agoraphobia.
As stated earlier, a phobia is an intense fear of an object or an event that can cause little to no actual harm to someone. An estimated 18 percent of the U.S. adult population suffers from a type of phobia, whether is be specific, social, or agoraphobia. No one knows how these phobias develop in someone, but there are ways to treat them if they do occur. To treat specific phobia, people can ask their physicians for medication to help them cope with the fear such as Xanax and Valium. However, if the phobia causes significant problems in which the person cannot do daily tasks, they will need professional help. To treat social phobia, patients can go through cognitive-behavior therapy and medications. Medications do not really help with getting rid of the phobia but suppress it. If one wants to actually overcome their fear, cognitive-behavior therapy works better. Agoraphobia is the same, as cognitive-behavior therapy helps out with the person’s fear of spaces.
The perception of the characteristics mentioned above are perceived by individuals as embarrassment, which can produce low self-esteem and excessive irritation common in phobic episodes(Davey, 1997).The consisted felling of fear or embarrassment situations without explanation is typical of panic disorder generally because the person is building negative thoughts over themselves. However, social avoidance produce limitations over the personal relationships or by meeting new people.
Phobias are irrational fears of an object or a situation that is not likely to be dangerous. Phobias cause disruption in one’s ability to carry out day-to-day functions. Most people have suffer from phobias are afraid of certain things. Agoraphobia is the fear being away from a safe place, mostly home. Specific phobia is the most common; this is a fear of a certain thing. Social phobias are less common, they deal with other people. People suffering from social phobias are extremely shy.