The emperor permitted trade with other European countries, with the intent that they adopted to Chinese culture, unlike the British (Cheng,105). Because China was seen as a relatively weak country at the time, Western powers tried to impose foreign trade there, therefore a large dispute followed. China tried to retain some power by attempting to prevent foreigners from entering the country’s interior. At the time, opium was introduced to China as an effective solution to the British trade problems (Cheng, 93). However, this caused economic problems in China ... ... middle of paper ... ...lity and nationalism in Japan after WWII (Craig, 141).
Had China remained in contact with the Western world it would have been possible for them to be as advanced a civilization as the Western world. As the Chinese government had their head buried in the sand with worry over losing control of their empire, they neglected to maintain the basic essentials of a functional country. All of China's canals eventually decayed as they were left unrepaired for years, the ironworks that China once prided itself one became obsolete with out a second look, and the army itself was no match for any Western army. The merchants were of no avail to the poor Chinese civilians as their profits on land and education. Upon shutting out the rest of the world China had forbidden the us... ... middle of paper ... ...Sun Yat-sen was to be sworn in as the first president of the provisional government of China's new Republic.
At the end of the Opium War, China was left defeated. While the loss severely undermined the Qing Dynasty's power, little did they know that their loss would have serious repercussions. The emperor signed a treaty with the British that would later be known as one of the “Unequal Treaties” made in China during this period. The treaty in question was named the treaty of Nanjing (also known as the treaty of Nanking). This treaty would have lasting effects even into recent history.
As one historian wrote, ‘Opium entered China on the back of a camel and it ended up breaking the back of an entire nation.’ The Emperor of China attempted to ban the use of the drug causing the First Opium War. The War took a devastating toll on China; economically, socially and politically, due to the signing of the Treaty of Nanking. While some impacts were beneficial for the war allowed China to take its first steps in its long journey to membership in the international society, others were more damaging as the war was also the trigger to many rebellions that followed, most notably the Taiping Rebellion. The immediate economic impact on China was the Treaty of Nanking, signed by both the Chinese and British officials and consisted of thirteen articles. Article VII stated that China was to pay for all the reparations, twenty-one million silver dollars in total (six million for the opium that was confiscated by Lin Zexu (imperial commissioner of Guangdong) in 1839, three million for the debts owed to the British merchants by the merchants in Canton and a further twelve million in war reparations).
Western imperialism in East Asia caused many tribulations for China, Japan, and Korea but also helped them to become contemporary nations. The East Asian countries were tremendously affected by unequal treaties, extraterritoriality, and above all, technology. Great Britain encroached upon China their greed for open trade with the Chinese empire resulting in the deterioration of the Chinese culture, which led to the emergence of a modernized civilization. Japan was co-subjugated by Russia and the United States so that the trade routes of these western countries could extend into the east, which resulted in the foundation of industrialization in Modern East Asia. Finally, the spread of western Christianity and influential neighbors, namely China and Japan, culturally influenced Korea while bringing some semblance of unification.
Opium Wars in China The Opium Wars were a series of three wars between the Chinese and the British; primarily fought in regard to the illegal trade of opium in China during the 19th century. They manifested the conflicting natures of both nations and demonstrated China’s misconceptions of its own superiority. The Opium Wars resulted in the humiliating defeat of the Chinese to a country they considered to be “barbarians”. There were many problems with the system of trade in China; even before opium trading began. China, believing herself to be the most civilized and advanced country, did not feel the need to satisfy Britain, a “barbarian” country’s request for freer trade and were concerned the British wanted land.
The wars demonstrated the military differential between China and Europe. The British used ships powered by steam to attack the Grand Canal, and China realizing that conquest was unavoidable, began the necessary preparations for a cease fire. As a result of these defeats, China was subjected to what came to be known as the Favorite Nation Treaties (FNT). China was forced legalize the opium trade, to surrender Hong Kong to Britain, permit the establishment of Christian missions, open ports to commerce, and not impose tariffs on imports. By 1900, the majority of Chinese sea ports were under the effective control of Western powers, foreign nations controlled much of the Chinese economy.
)” (172). In order to keep its power, China needed to make people quite the smoking habit. Chinese’s attitude towards the foreigners is one reason which caused the Opium War. The middle kingdom China did not realize their over-confidence made them step into a dangerous trap. There was a demand for Chinese tea from ... ... middle of paper ... ... families suffered, but also showed Qing Dynasty’s decline point in the history.
The disparity of success between these two movements demonstrates the evolving political strength of the Chinese state that has revolutionized in its sovereignty and organization since the mid-nineteenth century, providing the foundation for mass reform and Chinese modernization. While the leaders of the self-strengthening movement desired to adopt Western military technology, they failed to recognize the strength and superiority of the Western political systems behind the armies. The ruling Qing dynasty, factionalized and ineffectual, did not provide a stable platform to initiate reforms. The Qing’s response to the opium trade, which devastated the health of citizens and threatened China’s control of trade, evidenced its lack of authority. Emperor Daoguang issued twelve imperial edicts between 1813 and 1839, yet the numbers of opium chests smuggled into China grew from 4,000 to... ... middle of paper ... ...with the world’s greatest powers.
The thought of opium as a topic of conversation in China throughout the late eighteenth century and nineteenth century brought about discussions that varied from arguments for its legalization and praise of its distributors to the complete ban of the drug and punishment for all users and smugglers. For those who acted as proponents of the narcotic, they sincerely believed that this necessary evil was one of the only aspects of the economy that could effectively propel China into the same class as that of the world’s supreme powers (Janin 6). Those who condemned even the slightest interaction with opium or its derivatives opted for the more “honorable” route, in that, they pledged to rid their country of such horrible vices in order to follow a purer path throughout their daily lives (Mackay 124). It was from these arguments that made these debates rampantly widespread throughout the country, with neither side effectively telling the truth about the future of China and ultimately being left to the voice of those in charge of the economy, since they are the ones who control what is worth importing and exporting. If the use of opium were permitted, then the impact would have been generally positive, in that, there would be fewer smugglers to worry about breaking the law, and more profit actually being given to the Chinese government since they would actually be included.