The Great Migration was a huge relocation of African Americans from the Southern states of the United States to northern and Midwestern cities. This occurred between the years of 1910 and 1970. Over 6 million African Americans traveled to Northern cities during the migration. Some northern city destinations were Richmond, D.C, Baltimore, New York, and Newark. Western and Midwestern destinations were those such as Los Angelos, San Francisco, St. Louis, Chicago, and Detroit. During this time period and previous years, Jim Crow laws in the South were greatly in affect and causing African Americans a rough time due to the racism they faced. After Reconstruction had ended, white supremacy had taken it's toll in the South and Jim Crow had taken over.. The North, Midwest, and West of the United States began to face a shortage in industrial laborers due to World War I beginning and putting an end to immigration of Europeans to the United States. African Americans felt that heading north was their escape from harsh laws and unsatisfactory economic opportunities. Many people, including teenagers, from the South would write letters to the Chicago Defender asking for help to come North and find work because in the South it was hard to make a living. Some migrants already had family members in the North. For example, James Green, an elderly man who migrated at a young age from Goldsboro, North Carolina, had an aunt who lived in New York, who wanted him to be with her. He and his wife moved to New York, after his return from the air force. Because
When the newcomers came to the north and west Starling, Gladney, and Foster it wasn’t a warm welcome. Wilkerson says that often when immigrants from the southern states came to the north or west mostly people closed the door on them and didn’t want to help. It a long time for them to find there place in major cities of the North and West, but southerners who stayed end up finding their way using elements of the old culture with the new opportunities in the north. Also traveling to the newer states wasn’t easy for African Americans. They usually traveling by train, boat or bus. And it was very dangerous to travel because of the gas station your able to stop at and even stop to get food. Also the long trips ahead. You would never know what troubles would be head of the journey. Typically once the black citizens arrived in the state it was hard to settle and to find a job with leak of skills. Like Ida Mae husband George ended up hauling ice up flights of stairs in cold Chicago and Ida Mae did domestic jobs before finding a decent job. Wilkerson also states that it took them a long time before really get settled in an affordable home in south side of Chicago. Then the journey to south was not cheap to make it far so many African Americans took in mind that having money before leaving would be the
After the end of the civil war African Americans had more opportunity and freedom since the men were soldiers of the civil war. Most African Americans had the plan to leave the south and move to up north because of the racism still lingering in the south, for example the Plessy vs. Ferguson Supreme Court case. This case was about a light-skin colored man sitting in the “white” car of a train. Although he was light-skin he was still considered black and got arrested for sitting in that section of the train. This was an opportunity to express racial equality, but the end result was devastating. The Supreme Court declared that segregation of race was to be still constitutionally acceptable. Also economic status in the south was getting lower and there was not as much labor due to destroyed crops.
The progression of people into and within the United States has had an essential impact on the nation, both intentionally and unintentionally. Progressions such as The Great Migration and the Second Great Migration are examples of movements that impacted the United States greatly. During these movements, African Americans migrated to flee racism and prejudice in the South, as well as to inquire jobs in industrial cities. They were unable to escape racism, but they were able to infuse their culture into American society. During the twentieth century, economic and political problems led to movements such as The Great Migration and The Second Great Migration which impacted the United States significantly.
Between 1850 and 1950 the African Americans achieved a lot in their fight for equality and civil rights. Although they did not get total equality by the end of that period, their situation had already improved a lot by the end of those hundred years, especially in the South were they became free men after more than 200 years of slavery. This period is also known as a time during which the economy of the US changed enormously, changing from a rural farming economy to a world power. In this essay, will discuss the likely effects of those economic changes on the black population and I will examine to what extent it was benefiting to them. It will show all the various ways, by which Negroes fought for better rights, equality and desegregation. We will also see that it is not only thanks to economic development that their situation improved, but that it is a range of various different factors that caused those important changes.
The early 1900’s was a time of dynamic immigration patterns, both within the U.S and throughout the world Nativist campaigns, huge world wars, and a variety of other factors all began to spark the ideas in the minds of the Americans that good would come from relocating to new places. All these massive migrations of multiple different groups of peoples were very important in shaping America’s identity still present today. The three most significant migrations during this period in relations to America was the large amounts of immigrants coming from Asian and European countries, the Great Migration of African American in search of new jobs, and the movement of Americans into major cities in search for jobs within the industrial field. As a result of the Great Migration, the movement of African Americans in search for new jobs, and Americans also joining the search for industrial jobs, American life was dramatically altered.
Beginning in the 1919 and lasting through about 1926 thousands of Blacks began to migrate from the southern United States to the North; an estimated 1 million people participated in what has come to be called the Great Migration. The reasons for this mass movement are complicated and numerous, but they include search for better work, which was fueled by a new demand for labor in the North (particularly from the railroad industry) and the destruction of many cotton harvests by the infectious boll weevil ...
The Great Migration was the movement of more than 6 million African Americans from the South to Northeastern, Midwestern, and Western cities. Before it began, 90 percent of all African Americans were living in the South. By the end, nearly half of them were living in cities of the North and West. (Wilkerson). During this time, the Southern economy was suffering greatly. Wages were low, jobs were few and pests called bull weevils could destroy entire cotton crops. (Liccone 3). After the passing of the 13th Amendment, freed slaves were allowed to leave their plantations and start a new life. However, leaving their plantation could result in angry whites hurting or killing them, so most were convinced to stay with their fo...
Harlem, New York saw a youthful, bustling new era that ushered in thriving black communities which found prosperity in both the pre- and post- World War I atmosphere. Home to more than 100,000 African Americans, Harlem saw a surge in black culture that encompassed a revitalized approach to American literature and redefined the sense of creativity with respect to fine arts (Kennedy et al. 741). It was the 1920 United States’s census that reported more Americans were living in cities than in rural towns which was significant because it was the first time in the young nation’s history that urban areas proved to be more populated than the formerly inhabited bucolic areas. More specifically, previously mechanized cities lured southerners, particularly those of African American descent, to the northeast and midwest sections of the United States. Historians collectively refer to the movement of these peoples to the Industrial north as the Great Migration which embodies the notion that blacks were the new source of labor that fueled the lively metropolises that were once occupied by European immigrants. This mass movement of African Americans to generally specific areas dramatically increased the concentration of this e...
Johnson, Daniel M., and Rex R. Campbell. Black Migration in America: A social demographic history. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1981.
Race and urban poverty are continuous challenges that the United States must continue to address. During the last 30 years innovative analyses and policy responses have been necessary to combat changes in the global economy, technology, and race relations. A common thread which weaves throughout many of the studies reviewed here is the dynamics of migration. In When Work Disappears, immigrants provide data to highlight the problems of ghetto poverty affecting blacks. In No Shame in My Game, Puerto Rican and Dominican immigrants reflect the changing demographics in Harlem. In Canarsie, the possible migration of blacks into a working-class neighborhood prompts conservative backlash from a liberal community. In Streetwise, the migration of young
The Great Migration, which lasted from 1910 to 1930, was the first mass movement of African Americans from the South to the North. There was one main factor that led to new job opportunities which attracted many African Americans to industrialized cites in the North. The occurrence of World War I in Europe had increased U.S. factories and factory productions as European nations, involved in the war, depended on the United States to replenish their supplies. Likewise, the war decreased laborers in the United States as it abridged the migration of many European immigrants to the U.S. as well as toke many citizens as soldiers which caused a massive vacancy in the work field. Philip Bonner, from the University of the Witwatersrand, explained this phenomena as he said, “It was only the outbreak of the first World War cutting off the flo...
During the Harlem Renaissance, World War 1, and the Great Depression were great times for the United States. There were great choices of jobs in many cities, especially in the North. Between the 1920’s and 1930’s more than 750,000 African Americans migrated to the North from the South to take advantage of the wealth. Manhattan: A city borough in Harlem, New York, only covers 3 sq mi and almost attracted
African Americans moved in significant numbers to the urban North, lured by economic opportunities, especially factory jobs, that were less available in the more rural South in the Great Migration. The African Americans also desired to escape the persistent racial violence they experienced, especially during World War I. African Americans clustered together in the Northern cities, and kinship and community networks knit African Americans together. During the 1920s and 1930s, the African American culture concentrated in Harlem notably flourished with the Harlem Renaissance. African Americans formed clubs, churches, and lodges in the South in order to sponsor the migration of their members, which fostered further migration to the North. Unfortunately, the African Americans were unable to escape racial discrimination in the North, with increasing racial tensions in the North, revealed through lynching and race riots. As a response to such discrimination, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People hosted a national conference in 1919 in order to increase the awareness of the horrors of lynching of African
Before the 1920s, black migration occurred primarily from southern state to another. In 1900, Harlem was a desirable upper-middle class neighborhood filled will Jewish immigrants. When the housing market hit a depression, black realtors began to attract and sell homes to a steady flow of black residents into West Harlem. Before, they were scattered throughout all 5 boroughs; the highest concentration being in Tenderloin and San Juan Hill. The white residents created housing associations and rules in attempts to keep blacks out, but it would ultimately fail. The influx of southern blacks settling in Harlem would push them out, little by little. Based on population alone, 1920 Harlem was the black capital of America. Still, that came with its