Regarding these various matters, African American studies is an multidisciplinary field created from the history and development of the African American culture, viewed through an afro-centric mindset. The emergence of black studies can be traced back to the nineteenth century, particularly in the 1880’s. It first began as a movement to discuss the inferiority of blacks, and was originally defined as the study of black people. (Hayes 1) Essays and journals can be found dating back to the nineteenth century which examine elements of the black experience. Some of which handle the topic of literature, others deal with education, and several examine language and literature.
Marcus Garvey. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. O'Meally, Robert G. "Ellison, Ralph." Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. 1996 ed.
Neal was just one of the important writers of the Black Arts Movement era. Other writers, poets, and essayists illustrated a new beginning for the black community to overcome their hardships and to rise up artistically. The concept of Black Power stemmed from the Black Arts Movement. Black Power was a political movement that arose to express a new racial consciousness among Blacks in the United States. Black Power represented a racial dignity leading to freedom from white authority in economic and political grounds.
There is in the mind of people the sense that they belong to a nation with political limits, sovereignty and community. Black nationalism is referred to as the effort of African Americans to create a sovereign nation-state and formulate an ideological basis for a concept of a national culture. The ideas attached to it include inherited tribal ties, occupied land and cultural norms. There are different components that sum up the concept of Black Nationalism. They are as follows: • Racialism is race as a biological essence possessing specific traits.
How are race and ethnicity represented in Tar Bay and White teeth? Are race and/or ethnicity challenged in these narratives, and if so, how? Toni Morrison an American writer specifically about the different aspects of the past with commenting on her explanation of this ‘untenable reality’ of slavery and the African American voices that developed out of it. She writes about the particular grasp of history and memory, her representation of the psychological ramifications of slavery, her depiction of race/ethnicity relations in America. In particular in Toni Morrison’s novel Tar Baby the notion of race and ethnicity is explored through the blackness which presents to the readers that as a nation we are all implicated in the construction of blackness and to present and show ways that the black art can promote and transform the constructions.
November 25, 2010. Swain, Carol M., ed. Race Versus Class. Boston: University Press of America, Inc. 1996. Reed, Veronica M. Civil Rights Legislation and the Housing Status of Black Americans.
African-American Studies The aspect of African-American Studies is key to the lives of African-Americans and those involved with the welfare of the race. African-American Studies is the systematic and critical study of the multidimensional aspects of Black thought and practice in their current and historical unfolding (Karenga, 21). African-American Studies exposes students to the experiences of African-American people and others of African descent. It allows the promotion and sharing of the African-American culture. However, the concept of African-American Studies, like many other studies that focus on a specific group, gender, and/or creed, poses problems.
Du Bois asserts that in order to overcome the adversity of Black misrepresentation and the displacement of culture, the Black community must maintain awareness of two concepts highlighted as “The Veil” and “Double Consciousness”. This analysis seeks to explain these concepts and their relation to contemporary America, weighing its effects and measuring the overall outcome while providing insight to Du Bois’ solution for defining identity. Du Bois concepts propose that the identity of “Blacks” and “American” is contradictory, and as result forces the use of multiple contextual definitions to classify the Black race in America. The first concept that will be analyzed is that of “the veil” in W.E.B Du Bois’ The Souls of Black Folks. Du Bois references an experience from his childhood where students of the schoolhouse practiced what can now be perceived as a secret Santa tradition.
American Journal of Sociology 3: pp 778. Neal, A. and M. Wilson. ( 1989). "The Role of Skin Color and Features in the Black Community. Implications for Black Women and Therapy".
The general consensus on postmodernism is that it’s indefinable, Bell hooks offers a solution in her essay Postmodern Blackness. She grounds the philosophical issues of postmodernism within the political framework of race and gender. She poses the question, why haven’t African Americans discussed “postmodern theory”. She describes post modernity as the celebration of differences and otherness, with that said she challenges postmodernism with the inclusion of African American identity. In many ways her essay covers some ground that, Langston Hughes, of the Harlem Renaissance did in his story The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain.