Affirmative Actions: African American

analytical Essay
1524 words
1524 words

It is ingrained in the fabric of this great nation that education opens the door to success and is a prerequisite of social mobility; more precisely, higher education. The ideal that even the poorest of citizens can aspire to achieve greatness with hard work and talent, is the American Dream that is at the heart of every U.S. citizen. Despite his family’s humble means, President Barack Obama rose through the ranks of higher education to hold the highest office of the most powerful nation in the world. According to the Kellogg National Forum on Higher Education and the Public Good, recent polls suggest that 98% of U.S. citizens believe that all people, regardless of gender, race, social class or ethnicity should have equal opportunity to attend college (2003). Despite this, recent studies show that too few African Americans are offered socioeconomic privileges linked with college degree attainment (Harper, 2006; Perna et al., 2006). This association between higher education and income and the persistence of poverty among African Americans and other minorities affirms that increasing the participation of minorities in higher education is crucial to ensuring their full economic and social participation in society (Harper, 2006; Perna et al., 2006). This struggle for access to and success in higher education has been emblematic of a bigger battle for equality and personhood. The “holy grails” of education in general and higher education in particular have long embodied African American’s hopes and frustrations as they seek the “promised land” of freedom and opportunity. This paper will address the issue of low college enrollment numbers to US higher education institutions among African Americans and other minorities. Affirmati... ... middle of paper ... ... Political and Economic Studies. Harper, S. R., Patton, L. D., & Wooden, O. S. (2009). Access and equity for African American students in higher education: A critical race historical analysis of policy efforts. Journal of Higher Education, 80(4), 389-414. Hernstein, R., & Murray, C. (1994). The Bell Curve. New York: Free Press Legislative Analyst Office. (retrieved: November 2, 2013). Available: Perna, L. W., Milem, J., Gerald, D., Baum, E., Rowan, H., & Hutchens, N. (2006). The status of equity for Black undergraduates in public higher education in the south: Still separate and unequal. Research in Higher Education, 47(2), 197–228. Wilds, D. J. (2000). Minorities in higher education, 1999-2000: Seventeenth annual status report. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

In this essay, the author

  • Argues that the american dream is at the heart of every u.s. citizen.
  • Opines that this paper will address the issue of low college enrollment numbers among african americans and other minorities.
  • Argues that the current low college enrollment and degree attainment of african americans is due to the rollbacks that have taken place with respect to affirmative action.
  • Argues that underperformance in k-12 education for under-represented minorities is the result of disproportionate opportunity. hispanics and african americans are more likely to attend schools with fewer credentialed teachers.
  • Explains that historically black colleges and universities (hbcus) were created to provide an alternative to enrolling african american students en masse at white colleges and universities.
  • Explains that harper, patton, and wooden analyzed access and equity for african-american students in higher education: a critical race historical analysis of policy efforts.
  • Cites perna, l. w., milem, j, gerald, d, baum, e, rowan, h, and hutchens, n.
  • States wilds, d. j., minorities in higher education, 1999-2000: seventeenth annual status report.
  • Argues that affirmative action programs are under severe attack by powerful vested interests because of their effectiveness.
  • Analyzes how the segregation of u.s. higher education occurs under the auspices of efforts to improve academic quality and standards.
  • Cites allen, bonous-hammarth, teranishi, dinwiddie, and gonzález's report on the black struggle for higher education in california.
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