on different activities will be influenced by what an individual expects and how much the individual values the things that are expected” (Wigfield et al., 2011, p.10). This means that expectancies and values are supposed to be the main factors influencing individual’s achievement. The expectancy factor refers to individual’s belief about their abilities in certain domains and how well they will perform in these domains, whereas the value factor refers to the four types of belief (Wigfield et al.
positions as leaders and managers. There is a perception that leadership is a level above management. McConnell (2006) states that there are differences between leading and managing. In short, “people obey managers because they must or they expect to; people follow leaders because they want to” (McConnell, 2006, p.147).Therefore, leadership can be defined as “the act of influencing others to work toward a goal” (Bauer & Erdogen, 2009, p.285) and can be considered “more art than science” (McConnell
desire to remain a member of the organization and loyalty to the organization (Mowday et al., 1982; Hackett et al., 2001). Allen and Meyer (1990) conceptualized a model of organizational commitment and identified three components: First is affective commitment which is related with employee emotional attachment, its identification and involvement with the different activities of the organization (Brunetto and Farr- Wharton, 2003). Second is continuance commitment is associated with the feeling
Creativity and Irrational Forces: Eccentric Artists and Mad Scientists "Men have called me mad, but the question is not yet settled, whether madness is or is not the loftiest intelligence--whether much that is glorious--whether all that is profound--does not spring from disease of thought--from moods of mind exalted at the expense of the general intellect. Those who dream by day are cognizant of many things which escape those who dream only by night" - Edgar Allen Poe "Imagination is more
learners risk exclusion. Behaviour sanctions are visible on learners creating futures reports, consequently affecting their scores and rewards. Asubel, Bloom and Vygotsky’s Cognitivist approach is also embedded within my lessons. Avis et al, (2010) states, Cognitivism is concerned with structure: both the intrinsic structure of knowledge and the structures ‘within our heads’. The cognitivist (Avis et al, 2010) processes the information received and link it to previously information stored in the brain
corporate culture evolves in an organisation and pervades in everything the organization does. He argues that organisations are founded for specific purposes and that the founders have strong convictions about how to achieve these purposes. He further states that these founders also have views about the nature of the world, human nature, truth, relationships, time and space and these views influence the corporate culture which the founders engender. Therefore, corporate culture carries a lot of the personal
to the multiple constituencies including the organization effectiveness. The term ‘employee performance’ represents the duties, activities and accomplishment of an employee during his work experience in an organization. Most of the researchers state the employee performance as a ‘mean’ to achieve the ends for an organization for example the objective of customer satisfaction (Borucki & Burke, 1999; Johnson, 1996). Hence, a lot of research work has been conducted to figure out the causes as well