I have myself given it a limited defense (1). Recently, Hume's argument has been severely attacked by Malcolm Budd (2). His central contention is that Hume completely fails to introduce any normative element into the aesthetic judgment; he fails, that is, to give any content to the claim that some judgments on the value of a work are more warranted or appropriate than others... ... middle of paper ... ... to "appreciating or failing to appreciate" the work. For although it is doubtless a necessary condition for valuing a work of art that we should appreciate it, this simply returns us to our original question, viz how should the aesthetic merits and blemishes of a work be determined? To this question, no answer other than Hume's is provided.
Subsequent to the study of different philosophies of art, as well as completing projects asking for personal preference in art as well as objective “fine art,” a personal philosophy may, by necessity, include subjective and objective facets. In determining what fine art is, the quality of universality is important. There also does not have to be a traditional presentation of beauty for a work of art to be fine art. Contrary to R. G. Collingwood’s philosophy, for fine art the culture and setting in which art is created should not matter, because if art is universal and timeless, meaning endures outside of where and when it was created. Evaluation of art can be subjective, but fine art is universally appreciated regardless of understanding background,
Critical thinking is a very important aspect to understanding art. As David Perkins put it in “The Intelligent Eye”, we must avoid “experimental thinking”, a rash, quick way of thinking based on observations and use “reflective intelligence”, a way of thinking in which a viewer takes their time and dissects details and nuances to fully understand a work of art. A majority of viewers will look at a piece of art and come to a quick analysis of it, without much thought. But, according to Perkins, “The more attentive the observation is, the better the opportunity is for deeper learning” (Perkins 14). As Banksy said in Exit Through the Gift Shop, “the reaction to the work of art is the most important thing about it.” Without a reaction or an opinion, the work of art has no meaning.
In order to find the full truth, the viewer must picture him or herself in the painting. As it reveals these important truths, the work of art must furthermore rely on the painting’s substance and being that is outside of that particular work of art itself. In closing, just as Heidegger stated in his argument against aesthetics: “The art work opens up in its own way the Being of beings. The truth of beings happens in the work. In the artwork, the truth of what is has set itself to work.
His ideas are to look at objects in sympathetic and disinterested ways. An example of looking at art sympathetically might include ignoring the possible break down of morals associated with Nazi art. The aesthetic attitude must also be disinterested. An example of being disinterested would be looking at painting and choosing to like it or not on its own merit without considering its rarity or artist. He also believes that one must actively attend to a object and focus on it, instead of sitting back and letting the mind wonder, to view it aesthetically (King).
Definition Essay – The Limitless Possibilities of Art Before attempting to define art in even the most abstract of terms, I must preface with an apologia, for any definition of art dooms itself to failure as long as it attempts to categorize together objects or actions which belong to no unified category. Where does one set boundaries to determine the limits of the category ‘art’? Mine will serve only to elaborate my own personal opinions as there exists no objective method of evaluation for a definition of art as a whole (at least one which does not set arbitrary boundaries). Because of this inability to objectify art, we must conclude that art is by nature subjective and exists—at least conceptually—largely in the perception of the individual or the observer. Also important to remember from the onset is art’s inherent neutrality of value.
They aren’t done out of spite or pleasure, it is just something that is done. This conclusion falls into the ideology of skepticism with moral falsehood with claims that “every substantive moral belief is false.” (Sinnott-Armstrong, 2015). If morality exists at all, then it cannot be verified to be true by any means. This gives way to nihilism, an absolute void of meaning and morality. Much like skepticism nihilism views
The big, obvious question about aesthetic value is whether it is ever ‘really in’ the objects it is attributed to. This issue parallels the realism/anti-realism debates elsewhere in philosophy. Though there is little reason to assume that aesthetic value will behave in just the say way as for example, moral value. An extreme realist would say that aesthetic values reside in an object as properties independent of any observer’s responses, and that if we make the judgment ‘That is a beautiful flower’, or ‘this painting is aesthetically good’, what we say is true or false – true if the flower or painting has the property, false if it does not. We will tend to like the object if we recognize the aesthetic value in it, but, for the realist, whether we recognize it and whether it is are two separate questions.
I find it illogical because just because there still isn’t enough evidence, doesn’t mean its wrong, its just not considered right or wrong. We don’t have enough proof to make it erroneous. And we can’t assume anything until there are enough indications to make it otherwise. In the essay “The ethics of belief” ... ... middle of paper ... ... their idea of right and wrong is just an opinion. And opinions are dismissal.
Bell opposes this view and argues that there is neither good nor bad art. In Bell’s excerpt he states, “In pure aesthetics we have no right, neither is there any necessity, to pry behind the object into the state of mind of him who made it” (Bell 188). Bell claims individuals should express themselves on what they think is art, without being judged by others. Good art have a strong impact on others because it expresses its meaning clearly with a high degree of sincerity whereas bad art lacks unity and deficient in clarity. When the recipient feels more pleasure, they would be deeply infected by the artist.